Manual of Legal Citation/Tables

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Manual of Legal Citation
Table of Contents
Indigo Book.png
Foreword and Introduction
Foreword
Introduction
Background Rules
Rule 1. Two Types of Legal Documents
Rule 2. Typeface Standards
Rule 3. In-Text Citations
Rule 4. Signals
Rule 5. Capitalization Rules
Rule 6. Signals for Supporting Authority
Rule 7. Signals for Comparison
Rule 8. Signals for Contradictory Authority
Rule 9. Signals for Background Material
Rule 10. Order of Authorities Within Each Signal / Strength of Authority
Cases
Rule 11. Full citation
Rule 12. Court & Year
Rule 13. Weight of Authority and Explanatory Parenthetical
Rule 14. History of the Case
Rule 15. Short Form Citation for Cases
Statutes, Rules, Regulations, and Other Legislative & Administrative Materials
Rule 16. Federal Statutes
Rule 17. State Statutes
Rule 18. Rules of Procedure and Evidence, Restatements, and Uniform Acts
Rule 19. Administrative Rules and Regulations
Rule 20. Federal Taxation Materials
Rule 21. Legislative Materials
Rule 22. Short Form Citation of Legislative and Administrative Materials
Rule 23. Sources and Authorities: Constitutions
Court & Litigation Documents
Rule 24. Citing Court or Litigation Documents from Your Case
Rule 25. Citing Court or Litigation Documents from Another Case
Rule 26. Short Form Citation for Court Documents
Rule 27. Capitalization Within the Text of Court Documents and Legal Memoranda
Books & Non-Periodicals
Rule 28. Full Citation for Books & Non-Periodicals
Rule 29. Short Form Citation for Books & Non-Periodicals
Journals, Magazines, & Newspaper Articles
Rule 30. Full Citation for Journals, Magazines & Newspaper Articles
Rule 31. Short Form Citation for Journals, Magazines & Newspaper Articles
Internet Sources
Rule 32. General Principles for Internet Sources
Rule 33. Basic Formula for Internet Sources
Rule 34. Short Form Citations for Internet Sources
Explanatory Parentheticals
Rule 35. General Principles for Explanatory Parentheticals
Rule 36. Order of parentheticals
Quotations
Rule 37. General Principles for Quotations
Rule 38. Alterations of Quotations
Rule 39. Omissions in Quotations
Rule 40. Special Rules for Block Quotations
Tables
Table 1. Federal Judicial and Legislative Materials
Table 2. Federal Administrative and Legislative Materials
Table 3. U.S. States and Other Jurisdictions
Table 4. Required Abbreviations for Services
Table 5. Required Abbreviations for Legislative Documents
Table 6. Required Abbreviations for Treaty Sources
Table 7. Required Abbreviations for Arbitral Reporters
Table 8. Required Abbreviations for Intergovernmental Organizations
Table 9. Required Abbreviations for Court Names
Table 10. Required Abbreviations for Titles of Judges and Officials
Table 11. Required Abbreviations for Case Names In Citations
Table 12. Required Abbreviations for Geographical Terms
Table 13. Required Abbreviations for Document Subdivisions
Table 14. Required Abbreviations for Explanatory Phrases
Table 15. Required Abbreviations for Institutions
Table 16. Required Abbreviations for Publishing Terms
Table 17. Required Abbreviations for Month Names
Table 18. Required Abbreviations for Common Words Used In Periodical Names
Table 19. Table of Citation Guides
Table 20. Tables of Correspondence
Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments

Contents

T1. Federal Judicial and Legislative Materials[edit | edit source]

Materials Date Citation
Supreme Court (U.S.): Cite to U.S., if possible. If not, cite to S. Ct. If that’s not possible, cite to L. Ed. If you can cite to none of the above, cite to U.S.L.W.
United States Reports
91 U.S. to date 1875–date U.S.
Wallace 1863–1874 e.g., 68 U.S. (1 Wall.)
Black 1861–1862 e.g., 66 U.S. (1 Black)
Howard 1843–1860 e.g., 42 U.S. (1 How.)
Peters 1828–1842 e.g., 26 U.S. (1 Pet.)
Wheaton 1816–1827 e.g., 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.)
Cranch 1801–1815 e.g., 5 U.S. (1 Cranch)
Dallas 1790–1800 e.g., 1 U.S. (1 Dall.)
Supreme Court Reporter 1882–date S. Ct.
United States Supreme Court Reports, Lawyers’ Edition 1790–date L. Ed., L. Ed. 2d
United States Law Week 1933–date U.S.L.W.
Circuit Justices (e.g., Burger, Circuit Justice): Cite to U.S., else, cite to S. Ct., L. Ed., or U.S.L.W. in that order of preference.
United States Reports 1893–date U.S.
Supreme Court Reporter 1893–date S. Ct.
United States Supreme Court Reports, Lawyers’ Edition 1790–date L. Ed., L. Ed. 2d
United States Law Week 1933–date U.S.L.W.
Some cases presided over by Circuit Justices are found in other reporters. Cite to these cases in the following manner:
  • Williamson v. United States, 184 F.2d 280 (Jackson, Circuit Justice, 2d Cir. 1950).
Courts of Appeals (e.g., 2d Cir., D.C. Cir.), previously Circuit Courts of Appeals (e.g., 2d Cir.), and Court of Appeals of/for the District of Columbia (D.C. Cir.): Cite to F., F.2d, or F.3d.
Federal Reporter 1891–date F., F.2d, F.3d
Federal Appendix 2001–date F. App’x
Circuit Courts (e.g., C.C.S.D.N.Y., C.C.D. Cal.) (abolished 1912): Cite to F. or F. Cas.
Federal Reporter 1880–1912 F.
Federal Cases 1789–1880 F. Cas.
Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals (Temp. Emer. Ct. App.) (1971–1993), Emergency Court of Appeals (Emer. Ct. App.) (created 1942, abolished 1961), and Commerce Court (Comm. Ct.) (created 1910, abolished 1913): Cite to F. or F.2d.
Federal Reporter 1910–1993 F., F.2d
For United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (Fed. Cir.) (created 1982), successor to the United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals (C.C.P.A.) (previously the Court of Customs Appeals (Ct. Cust. App.)) and the appellate jurisdiction of the Court of Claims (Ct. Cl.): Cite to F., F.2d, or F.3d; else, cite to the official reporter.
Federal Reporter 1910–date F., F.2d, F.3d
Court of Claims Reports 1956–1982 Ct. Cl.
Court of Customs and Patent Appeals Reports 1929–1982 C.C.P.A.
Court of Customs Appeals Reports 1910–1929 Ct. Cust.
United States Court of Federal Claims (Fed. Cl.) (created 1992), formerly United States Claims Court (Cl. Ct.) (created 1982), and successor to the original jurisdiction of the Court of Claims (Ct. Cl.): Cite to one of the following reporters:
Federal Claims Reporter 1992–date Fed. Cl.
United States Claims Court Reporter 1983–1992 Cl. Ct.
Federal Reporter 1930–1932 F.2d
1960–1982 F.2d
Federal Supplement 1932–1960 F. Supp.
Court of Claims Reports 1863–1982 Ct. Cl.
For United States Court of International Trade (Ct. Int’l Trade) (created 1980), formerly United States Customs Court (Cust. Ct.) (created 1926): Cite to the official reporters, if possible; if not, in the following order, cite to F. Supp., F. Supp. 2d, or F. Supp. 3d to Cust. B. & Dec. (an official publication), or to I.T.R.D. (BNA).
Court of International Trade Reports 1980–date Ct. Int’l Trade
Customs Court Reports 1938–1980 Cust. Ct.
Federal Supplement 1980–date F. Supp., F. Supp. 2d, F. Supp. 3d
Customs Bulletin and Decisions 1967–date Cust. B. & Dec.
International Trade Reporter Decisions 1980–date I.T.R.D. (BNA)
For District Courts (e.g., D. Mass., S.D.N.Y.): For cases after 1932, cite to F. Supp., F. Supp. 2d, F. Supp. 3d, F.R.D., or B.R.; else, cite to Fed. R. Serv.,Fed. R. Serv. 2d, or Fed. R. Serv. 3d. For prior cases, cite to F., F.2d, or F. Cas.
Federal Supplement 1932–date F. Supp., F. Supp. 2d, F. Supp. 3d
Federal Rules Decisions 1938–date F.R.D.
West’s Bankruptcy Reporter 1979–date B.R.
Federal Rules Service 1938–date Fed. R. Serv. (Callaghan), Fed. R. Serv. 2d (Callaghan), Fed. R. Serv. 3d (West)
Federal Reporter 1880–1932 F., F.2d
Federal Cases 1789–1880 F. Cas.
Citations to F. Cas. should give the case number parenthetically.
  • Davey v. The Mary Frost, 7 F. Cas. 11 (E.D. Tx. 1876) (No. 3591).
For Bankruptcy Courts (e.g., Bankr. N.D. Cal.) and Bankruptcy Appellate Panels (e.g., B.A.P. 1st Cir.), cite to B.R.; else, cite to a service.
Bankruptcy Reporter 1979–date B.R.
Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation (J.P.M.L.) (created 1968) and Special Court, Regional Rail Reorganization Act (Reg’l Rail Reorg. Ct.) (created 1973): Cite to F. Supp., F. Supp. 2d., or F. Supp. 3d.
Federal Supplement 1968–date F. Supp., F. Supp. 2d, F. Supp. 3d
For Tax Court (T.C.) (created 1942), previously Board of Tax Appeals (B.T.A.), cite to T.C. or B.T.A.; else, cite to T.C.M. (CCH), T.C.M. (P-H), T.C.M. (RIA), or B.T.A.M. (P-H).
United States Tax Court Reports 1942–date T.C.
Reports of the United States Board of Tax Appeals 1924–1942 B.T.A.
Tax Court Memorandum Decisions 1942–date T.C.M. (CCH)
1942–1991 T.C.M. (P-H)
1991–date T.C.M. (RIA)
Board of Tax Appeals Memorandum Decisions 1928–1942 B.T.A.M. (P-H)
For United States Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims (Vet. App.), previously United States Court of Veterans Appeals (Vet. App.) (created 1988), cite to Vet. App.
West’s Veterans Appeals Reporter 1990–date Vet. App.
United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces (C.A.A.F.), previously United States Court of Military Appeals (C.M.A.): Cite to C.M.A..
Decisions of the United States Court of Military Appeals 1951–1975 C.M.A.
West’s Military Justice Reporter 1978–date M.J.
Court Martial Reports 1951–1975 C.M.R.
Military Service Courts of Criminal Appeals (A. Ct. Crim. App., A.F. Ct. Crim. App., C.G. Ct. Crim. App., N-M. Ct. Crim. App.), previously Courts of Military Review (e.g., A.C.M.R.), previously Boards of Review (e.g., A.B.R.): For cases after 1950, cite to M.J. or C.M.R. For earlier cases, cite to the official reporter.
West’s Military Justice Reporter 1975–date M.J.
Court Martial Reports 1951–1975 C.M.R.
For statutory compilations, cite to U.S.C.
United States Code (26 U.S.C. may be abbreviated as I.R.C.) <tit. no.> U.S.C. § x (<year>)
United States Code Annotated <tit. no.> U.S.C.A. § x (West <year>)
United States Code Service <tit. no.> U.S.C.S. § x (LexisNexis <year>)
Gould’s United States Code Unannotated <tit. no.> U.S.C.U. § x (Gould <year>)
Session laws
United States Statutes at Large <vol. no.> Stat. <page no.> (<year>)
For public laws before 1957, cite by by chapter number; for subsequent public laws, cite by public law number.


T2. Federal Administrative and Executive Materials[edit | edit source]

Administrative Materials Citation
Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals (ASBCA)
Decisions: Cite decisions as: <case name>, ASBCA No. <decision number>, <citation to services> For citations to the Board of Contract Appeals Decisions (BCA), published by Commerce Clearing House, the publisher is not indicated and the volume number should be used to indicate the year of the decision.

RMTC Sys., Inc., ASBCA No. 43466, 93-1 BCA ¶ 25,508.

Civilian Board of Contract Appeals (CBCA)
Decisions: Cite the same way as a citation for the Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals, but include the opposing agency in the case name.

G2G, LLC v. Dept. of Commerce, CBCA 4845-R, 15-1 BCA ¶ 36,163.

Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals (ASBCA)
Decisions: Cite decisions as: <case name>, ASBCA No. <decision number>, <citation to services> For citations to the Board of Contract Appeals Decisions (BCA), published by Commerce Clearing House, the publisher is not indicated and the volume number should be used to indicate the year of the decision.
Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC)
Decisions: Cite as <case name>, CFTC No. <docket number>, <secondary source if available> (<date>).

Windjammer Capital LLC v. Glob. Futures Exch. & Trading Co., Inc., CFTC No. 14-R1, 2015 WL 9434227 (Dec. 22, 2015).

Interpretive Letters, No-Action Letters, and Exemptive Letters: Cite a service or an electronic database. Include the full name of the correspondent if available, the CFTC docket number, and the full date on which the letter became publicly available.
Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB)
Decisions: Cite as <case name>, CFPB No. <decision number>, <secondary source if available> (<date>).

American Express Travel Related Servs., Inc., CFPB No. 2013-CFPB-0013 (Dec. 24, 2013).

Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Decisions: Cite to the Agriculture Decisions (Agric. Dec).

Arizona Livestock Auction, Inc., 55 Agric Dec. 1121 (U.S.D.A. 1996).

Directives: Cite as: <issuing agency abbreviated according to table below> <directive number>, <directive title> (U.S.D.A. <year>).
Agricultural Marketing Service AMS
Agricultural Research Service ARS 218
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service APHIS
Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion CNPP
Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service CSREES
Economic Research Service ERS
Farm Service Agency FSA
Food and Nutrition Service FNS
Food Safety and Inspection Service FSIS
Foreign Agricultural Service FAS
Forest Service FS
Grain Inspection, Packers, and Stockyards Administration GIPSA
National Agricultural Library NAL
National Agricultural Statistics Service NASS
National Institute of Food and Agriculture NIFA
National Resources Conservation Service NRCS
Risk Management Agency RMA
Rural Development RD
Rural Housing Service RHS
Rural Utilities Service RUS
Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
Decisions in Consistency Appeals Under the Coastal Zone Management Act: Citation format for decisions of the Secretary of Commerce under the Coastal Zone Management Act: Decision and Findings in the Consistency Appeal of <party name>, from an objection by <state or relevant state agency’s name> (Sec’y of Commerce <date>). If these decisions are not published in an official reporter; indicate the source where the decision is located.
Other NOAA Decisions: For decisions of administrative law judges in civil administrative law cases, cite to the Ocean Resources and Wildlife Reporter (O.R.W.); else cite to an appropriate secondary source.
Decisions of the Administrator for Appeals (NOAA App.) should so specify.
Department of Commerce, Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)
Decisions: For decisions of the Commissioner of Patents, cite to Decisions of the Commissioner of Patents (Dec. Comm’r Pat.) following Rule 19, except that if the party name includes a procedural phrase, it should be included.
For decisions by the Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences (B.P.A.I.), cite as: <party name>, No. <docket number>, <citation to secondary source if available> (B.P.A.I. <date>).
For decisions of the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board (T.TA.B.), cite as: <case name>, <citation to secondary source> (T.T.A.B. <year>).
Patents:
If relevant, cite the patent number and the date the patent was filed.

U.S. Patent No. 8,112,504 B2 (filed Mar. 4, 2009)

The patent name and/or issuing date may be included if relevant.

System for disseminating media content representing episodes in a serialized sequence, U.S. Patent No. 8,112,504 B2 (filed Mar. 4, 2009) (issued Feb. 7, 2012)

For citations to a specific field of the title page, include the field code in brackets:

U.S. Patent No. 8,112,504 B2, at [75] (filed Mar. 4, 2009)

For citations to a specific portion of patent text, a patent figure, or an item within a figure:

U.S. Patent No. 8,112,504 B2, fig. 1, item 141 (filed Mar. 4, 2009)

Short form patent citations include an apostrophe followed by the last three digits of the patent number:

’504 Patent.

Trademarks:
For registered trademarks, cite as <TRADEMARK NAME>, Registration No. <registration number>.

THE BLUEBOOK A UNIFORM SYSTEM OF CITATION, Registration No. 3,886,986.

For trademarks that have been filed, but not approved, cite as U.S. Trademark Application Serial No. <Serial Number> (filed <date>).

U.S. Trademark Application Serial No. 86,680,743 (filed Jul. 1, 2015).

Official Gazette of the United States Patent Office (1872–1971) Off. Gaz. Pat. Office
Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office (1975–2002) Off. Gaz. Pat. & Trademark Office
Trademark Manual of Examining Procedure TMEP (5th ed. Sept. 2007)
Manual of Patent Examining Procedure MPEP (8th ed. Rev. 7, Sept. 2008)
Department of Education
Reports: Cite Institution of Education Sciences reports as Institution of Education Sciences, <title> <page> (<date>).
Institute of Education Sciences, National Board for Education Sciences Annual Report 12 (2014).
Reports: Cite federal student aid proceedings as <case name>, U.S. Dep’t of Educ., No. <docket number> (<date>).
Lincoln Univ., U.S. Dep't of Educ., No. 13-68-SF (Mar. 16, 2015).
Department of Homeland Security, Bureau of Customs and Border Protection
The two official reporters of the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection and its predecessors are the Administrative Decisions Under Immigration and Nationality Laws (I. & N. Dec.) and the Customs Bulletin and Decisions (Cust. B. & Dec).
Department of Justice
Advisory Opinions: For published, formal advisory opinions, cite in the same manner as adjudications. Cite opinions from the Attorney General as Opinions of the Attorneys General (Op. Att’y Gen.).

Cite opinions from the Office of Legal Counsel as Opinions of the Office of Legal Counsel of the Department of Justice (Op. O.L.C.).

Authority of Sec’y of Treasury to Compromise Final Judgments, 36 U.S. Op. Att’ Gen. 40 (1929)
Diversion of Water From Niagara River, 30 Op. Att'y Gen. 217 (1913).
U.S. Assistance to Countries That Shoot Down Civil Aircraft Involved in Drug Trafficking, 18 Op. O.L.C. 148, 165 (1994).

Cite precedent decisions of the Board of Immigration Appeals (BIA) to Administrative Decisions Under Immigration and Nationality Laws (I. & N. Dec.) as published by the Department of Justice Executive Office for Immigration Review (EOIR).

Department of Labor
Decisions in Petition for Modification Cases Under Section 101(c) of the Mine Act, 30 U.S.C. § 811(c): Cite as <description of decision>, <case name>, Docket No. <docket number> (Dep’t of Labor <date>).

Note that these decisions have not been reported in any official reporter or service.

Decisions in Enforcement Actions Brought by the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs: Cite as <case name>, <docket number>, <description of decision> (Dep’t of Labor <date>).

Note that these decisions have not been reported in any official reporter or service.

OFCCP v. Bank of Am., 97-OFC-16, Secretary's Decision and Order of Remand (Dep't of Labor Mar. 31, 2003).
Decisions by the Benefits Review Board: Cite to a service.
Jones v. I.T.O. Corp. of Baltimore, 9 Ben. Rev. Bd. Serv. (MB) 583, 585 (1979).
Department of the Interior
Cite agency decisions to Interior Decisions (Interior Dec.) or Interior and General Land Office Cases Relating to Public Lands (Pub. Lands Dec.). Where a board within the agency issues the opinion, note the board in the same parenthetical as the date, using these abbreviations:
Interior Board of Land Appeals IBLA
Interior Board of Indian Appeals DBIA
Interior Board of Contract Appeals IBCA
Shell Offshore, Inc., 94 Interior Dec. 69 (IBLA 1987).
Department of State
Reports: For reports of the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, cite as: U.S. Dep’t of State, Bureau of Democracy, H.R. and Lab., <title> <page> (<date>).
U.S. Dep't of State, Bureau of Democracy, H.R. and Lab., International Religious Freedom Report 14 (2014).
Department of the Treasury
Regulations: For Department of Treasury regulations, cite as <Treas. Reg.>, despite the fact that they are published under Title 26 of the C.F.R.
For unamended regulations, cite the year:
Treas. Reg. § 1.41-2 (1989).

Indicate if the regulation is a temnporary regulation by beginning the citation with Temp:

Temp. Treas. Reg. § 5e.274-8 (1982).
For specific questions and answers, cite as:
Treas. Reg. § 1.72-16(a), Q&A (3)(a) (1963).
If any subsection of the cited section has been amended or appears in substantially different versions, give the year of the most recent amendment. Follow this rule even if the particular subsection you are citing has never been amended.
Treas. Reg. § 1.41-2 (as amended in 2001).
Indicate when the source of the amendment is relevant.
Treas. Reg. § 1.41-2 (as amended by T.D. 8930, 65 FR 287).
For proposed Treasury regulations to the Federal Register, cite in the following manner:
Prop. Treas. Reg. § 1.704-1, 48 Fed. Reg. 9871, 9872 (Mar. 9, 1983).
Treasury Determinations: Cite Revenue Rulings, Revenue Procedures, and Treasury Decisions to the Cumulative Bulletin (C.B.) or its advance sheet, the Internal Revenue Bulletin (I.R.B.), or to Treasury Decisions Under Internal Revenue Laws (Treas. Dec. Int. Rev.), in that order of preference.
The numbering of the Cumulative Bulletin is as follows:
  1. By volume number from 1919 to 1921.
  2. By volume number and part number from 1921 to 1936.
  3. By year and part number from 1937 to date.

The abbreviations used are explained in the introductory pages of each volume of the Cumulative Bulletin.

Private Letter Rulings: Cite by number and the date issued, if available.
Technical Advice Memoranda: Cite by number and the date issued, if available.
General Counsel Memoranda: Cite by number and the date on which the memorandum was approved.
Other Treasury Determinations: For all other Treasury materials, cite to the Cumulative Bulletin, Internal Revenue Bulletin, or Internal Revenue Manual (IRM).
Delegation Orders (Deleg. Order)
Treasury Orders (Treas. Order)Treasury Directives (Treas. Dir.)
Notices, Announcements, and News Releases

Otherwise cite by number and date issued.

Cases: For the Tax Court and Board of Tax Appeals, cite as those of a court, not of an agency.
Acquiescence: The following may be indicated in the case citation if the Commissioner of the Internal Revenue Service has published an acquiescence (acq.), acquiescence in result only (acq. In result), or nonacquiescence (nonacq.) in a decision of the Tax Court or Board of Tax Appeals.
Action on Decision: To cite an action on decision (action on dec) as subsequent history, include its identifying number, if any, and its full date.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Decisions: For Environmental Administrative Decisions (E.A.D.) indicate the decision maker—either the Environmental Appeals Board (EAB) or an administrative law judge—if the source does not make it obvious.
Donald Cutler, 11 E.A.D. 622, 623 (EAB 2004).
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
Decisions: For EEOC decisions that do not have readily identifiable titles, cite using the decision number in place of the title. Otherwise cite per Rule 19.
Budnik v. Chertoff, EEOC DOC 0520070154 (2006).
For EEOC Federal Sector decisions that have party names, cite in accordance with Rule 11.2.
Executive Office of the President
Executive Orders, Presidential Proclamations, and Reorganization Plans: Cite by page number to 3 C.F.R. However, since all executive orders are not reprinted in successive years of the C.F.R., cite to the original year, rather than the most recent edition of the C.F.R.

Where relevant, include a parallel citation to the U.S.C.

Exec. Order 13,136, 3 C.F.R. 216 (Sep. 3, 1999).
If the material is not in the C.F.R., cite to the Federal Register.
Exec. Order 12,900, 59 FR 9061 (Feb. 22, 1994).
A parallel citation to the Statutes at Large may also be given.
Other Presidential Papers: Cite to Public Papers of the Presidents (Papers) if found there. If not recorded in the Public Papers, cite the Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents (Weekly Comp. Pres. Doc.), published from 1965 to January 29, 2009, the Daily Compilation of Presidential Documents (Daily Comp. Pres. Doc.), published from January 29, 2009 to date, or the U.S. Code Congressional and Administrative News (U.S.C.C.A.N.).
Budgets: Use the structure of book citations for governmental budgets.
Office of Mgmt. & Budget, Exec. Office of the President, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2014 (2013).
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
Decisions: For decisions of administrative law judges in civil penalty enforcement matters adjudicated under 14 C.F.R. Part 13, Section 13.16 and subpart G, cite per Rule 12.4.2 as slip opinions.
For Decisions of the Administrator or his delegate, cite using an order number, not a docket number.
For Decisions of the Office of Dispute Resolution for Acquisition (ODRA) adjudicated under 14 C.F.R. Part 17, the citation should incorporate the type of dispute.
For other FAA decisions and orders, the citation should indicate the nature of the decision, followed by the date.
Federal Express Corporation, FAA Order No. 2002-20, 2002 WL 31777976 (F.A.A.).
Envirosolve, LLC, FAA Order No. 2006-2, 2006 WL 465371 (Feb. 7, 2006).
Aerocomp, Inc., FAA Order No. 2006-1, Order Dismissing Appeal (Jan. 12, 2006).
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
Cite to the Federal Communications Commission Reports (F.C.C., F.C.C.2d), published 1934-1986, or the Federal Communications Commission Record (FCC Rcd.), published since 1986.
Protecting and Promoting the Open Internet, GN Docket No. 14-28, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 29 FCC Rcd 5561 (2014).
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)
Cite decisions to the Federal Energy Guidelines: FERC Reports (FERC).
Filing of Privileged Materials and Answers to Motions, Order No. 769, 141 FERC ¶ 61,049 (2012).
Federal Labor Relations Authority (FLRA)
Cite decisions to the Decisions of the Federal Labor Relations Authority (F.L.R.A.).
Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission (FMSHRC)
Cite decisions to the Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission Decisions (FMSHRC).
Federal Reserve System
Enforcement Actions: Cite written agreements resulting from enforcement actions as: Written Agreement between <private bank name> and <Federal Reserve Bank name>, Docket no. <docket number> (<date>).
Written Agreement Between Allied First Bancorp, Inc. and Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, Docket No. 14-006-WA/RB-HC (2014).
Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
Cite decisions to the Federal Trade Commission (F.T.C.).
Government Accountability Office (GAO)
Bid Protest Decisions: Cite to Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States (Comp. Gen.).
Space Communications Co., 66 Comp. Gen. 2 (1987).
For unpublished decisions to a readily accessible source, cite as: <protesting party>, <docket number>, <volume number or year> <source> <location within source volume or year> (Comp. Gen. <date>).

Do not indicate the publisher when citing these cases to the Comptroller General’s Procurement Decision, published by West.

HP Enterprise Services, LLC, B-405692, 2012 CPD ¶ 13 (Comp. Gen. Dec. 14, 2011).
Phoenix Environmental Design, Inc., B-412503, 2016 WL 873296 (Comp. Gen. Mar. 7, 2016).
Insert “et al.” after the docket number where a decision resolves multiple bid protests, each having its own docket number.
IAP-Hill, LLC, B-406289 et al, 2012 CPD ¶ 151 (Comp. Gen. Apr. 4, 2012).
International Trade Commission (USITC)
Trade Remedy Investigations: Cite as: <investigation name>, Inv. No. <number>, USITC Pub. <number> (<date>) (<status>).

Indicate where a single decision contains multiple investigation numbers.

Trade and Investment Polices in India, 2014–2015, Inv. No. 332-550, USITC Pub. 4566 (Sep. 2015).
The Year in Trade 2014: Operation of the Trade Agreements Program, USITC Pub. 4543 (July 2015).
Polyvinyl Alcohol from China, Japan, and Taiwan, Inv. Nos. 701-TA-309, 731-TA-528, 731-TA-529, USITC Pub. 4067 (Mar. 27, 2009) (Review).
Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB)
Cite decisions to the Decisions of the United States Merit Systems Protection Board (M.S.P.B.).
National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)
Cite decisions and orders to the Decisions and Orders of the National Labor Relations Board (N.L.R.B.).
National Mediation Board (NMB)
Cite decisions to the Decisions of the National Mediation Board (N.M.B.).
National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB)
Cite decisions to the National Transportation Safety Board Decisions (N.T.S.B.), published from 1967-1977.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)
For decisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, cite to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances (N.R.C.).

For decisions of its predecessor, the Atomic Energy Commission (1956–1975), cite to the Atomic Energy Commission Reports (A.E.C.).

Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission (OSHRC)
Decisions: For commission decisions reported in a service, cite as: <party name>, <service volume number> <publisher> <service, abbreviated as below> <page/paragraph number> (No. <docket number>, <year>).
US Pagoda, Inc., CCH OSHD ¶ 33123 (No. 10-2035, 2011).
At the end of a citation, indicate parenthetically when an administrative law judge issued the decision, rather than the commission.
Miller Construction Co., 24 BNA OSHC 1817 (No. 13-0323, 2013) (ALJ).
The abbreviations OSHRC uses for services reporting its decisions vary from those in Table T4 as follows:
Occupational Safety & Health Cases (BNA) OSHC
Occupational Safety & Health Decisions OSHD
A decision that is not cited in any service or database may be cited as a slip opinion using Rule 12.4.2.
Prime Roofing Corp., No. 07-1409 (OSHRC Feb. 5, 2008).
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
Interpretive Letters, No-Action Letters, and Exemptive Letters: Cite a service or an electronic database (Rule 12.4.1. LEXIS and Westlaw cases). In the citation, include the correspondent’s full name and the date that the letter became publicly available.
Poplogix LLC, SEC No-Action Letter, 2010 WL 4472794 (Nov. 5, 2010).
MP Environmental Funding LLC, SEC Interprative Letter, 2007 WL 2838964 (Sep. 19, 2007)
Releases: Cite the Federal Register, SEC Docket, or a service (Rule 19. Administrative Rules and Regulations). Releases that have subject-matter title may be presented in a short form. Make sure to include the act under which the release was issued, the release number, and the date.
SEC Whistleblower Rules, Exchange Act Release No. 75592, 80 Fed. Reg 47829 (Aug. 10, 2015).
If the release is an adjudication, abbreviate the parties’ names according to Rule 11.
Midas Securities, LLC., Exchange Act Release No. 66200, 102 SEC Docket 3123, 102 SEC Docket 3137 (Jan. 20, 2012).
If the adjudication occurred before an administrative law judge, indicate this fact in the date parenthetical.
If a particular release is issued under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act, or the Investment Company Act, a parallel citation should be given in that order.
Staff Interpretations: Cite SEC Staff Accounting Bulletins, Staff Legal Bulletins, and Telephone Interpretations as follows:
SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 99, 64 Fed. Reg. 45150 (Aug. 19, 1999).
SEC Filings: For annual reports, proxy statements, and other company filings required under federal securities laws, provide the name of the company (abbreviated according to Rule 15.1 In Text), the title as given in the document, the form type in parentheses, the page number if applicable, and the full date of filing with the SEC.
Apple Inc., Annual Report (Form 10-K), (Oct. 28, 2015).
If citing annual reports, proxy statements, or other documents in a form other than that filed with the SEC, treat as books under Rule 15.
Facebook, Inc., 2014 Annual Report (2014).
Small Business Administration (SBA)
Decisions: Cite decisions as: <party name>, SBA No. <docket number> (<date>).
OxyHeal Medical Systems, Inc., SBA No. SIZ-5707 (Jan. 19 2016).
The docket number indicates the type of decision:
Small disadvantaged business SDBA
Size determination SIZ
Service disabled veteran owned business VET
Business development program BDP
North American Industry Classification System NAICS
Social Security Administration (SSA)
Rulings and Acquiescence Rulings: For Social Security Rulings, cite as SSR; for Social Security Acquiescence Rulings, cite as SSAR.

Cite to the Social Security Rulings, Cumulative Edition (S.S.R. Cum. Ed.). If not published there, cite to another official source, such as the Code of Federal Regulations or the Federal Register. Otherwise, cite a commercial database or other source.

SSR 62-2, 1960-1974 Soc. Sec. Rep. Serv. 69 (Jan. 1, 1962).
Surface Transportation Board (STB)
For materials from the Surface Transportation Board, cite to the Surface Transportation Board Reporter (S.T.B.). For materials from its predecessor, cite to the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), to the Interstate Commerce Commission Reporter (I.C.C., I.C.C. 2d).
The official date for unpublished decisions is the date on which the decision was served on the parties or otherwise filed by the STB (or ICC). Do not cite the date of the decision.


T3. U.S. States and Other Jurisdictions[edit | edit source]

Category Dates Abbreviation
Alabama
Supreme Court (Ala.): Cite to So., So. 2d, or So. 3d.
Southern Reporter 1886–date So., So. 2d, So. 3d
Alabama Reports 1840–1976 Ala.
Porter 1834–1839 Port.
Stewart and Porter 1831–1834 Stew. & P.
Stewart 1827–1831 Stew.
Minor 1820–1826 Minor
Court of Civil Appeals (Ala. Civ. App.) and Court of Criminal Appeals (Ala. Crim. App.), before 1969 Court of Appeals (Ala. Ct. App.): Cite to So., So. 2d, or So. 3d.
Southern Reporter 1911–date So., So. 2d, So. 3d
Alabama Appellate Courts Reports 1911–1974 Ala. App.
Statutory compilations: Cite to Ala. Code (published by West).
Code of Alabama, 1975 (West) Ala. Code § x-x-x (<year>)
Michie’s Alabama Code, 1975 (LexisNexis) Ala. Code § x-x-x (LexisNexis <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Ala. Laws.
Alabama Laws <year> Ala. Laws <page no.>
West’s Alabama Legislative Service <year> Ala. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Michie’s Alabama Code <year> Advance Legislative Service (LexisNexis) <year>-<pamph. no.> Ala. Adv. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (LexisNexis)
Administrative compilation
Alabama Administrative Code Ala. Admin. Code r. x-x-x.x (<year>)
Administrative register
Alabama Administrative Monthly <vol. no.> Ala. Admin. Monthly <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Alaska
Supreme Court (Alaska): Cite to P.2d or P.3d.
Pacific Reporter 1960–date P.2d, P.3d
Court of Appeals (Alaska Ct. App.): Cite to P.2d or P.3d.
Pacific Reporter 1980–date P.2d, P.3d
District Courts of Alaska (D. Alaska): These courts had local jurisdiction from 1884 to 1959. Cite to F. Supp., F., or F.2d; else, cite to Alaska or Alaska Fed., in that order of preference.
Federal Supplement 1946–1959 F. Supp.
Federal Reporter 1886–1932 F., F.2d
Alaska Reports 1887–1958 Alaska
Alaska Federal Reports 1869–1937 Alaska Fed.
United States District Courts for California and Oregon, and District Courts of Washington (D. Cal., D. Or., D. Wash.): These courts had local jurisdiction in Alaska until 1884. Cite to F. or F. Cas.
Federal Reporter 1880–1884 F.
Federal Cases 1867–1880 F. Cas.
Alaska Federal Reports 1869–1937 Alaska Fed.
Statutory compilations: Cite to Alaska Stat.
Alaska Statutes (LexisNexis) Alaska Stat. § x.x.x (<year>)
West’s Alaska Statutes Annotated Alaska Stat. Ann. § x.x.x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Alaska Sess. Laws.
Session Laws of Alaska <year> Alaska Sess. Laws <page no.>
Alaska Statutes <year> Advance Legislative Service <year>-<pamph. no.> Alaska Adv. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (LexisNexis)
West’s Alaska Legislative Service <year> Alaska Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Alaska Administrative Code (LexisNexis) Alaska Admin. Code tit. x, § x.x (<year>)
Arizona
Supreme Court (Ariz.): Cite to P., P.2d, or P.3d.
Pacific Reporter 1883–date P., P.2d, P.3d
Arizona Reports 1866–date Ariz.
Court of Appeals (Ariz. Ct. App.): Cite to P.2d or P.3d.
Pacific Reporter 1965–date P.2d, P.3d
Arizona Reports 1976–date Ariz.
Arizona Appeals Reports 1965–1977 Ariz. App.
Tax Court (Ariz. Tax Ct.): Cite to P.2d or P.3d.
Pacific Reporter 1988–date P.2d, P.3d
Statutory compilations: Cite to Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann..
Arizona Revised Statutes Annotated (West) Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § x-x (<year>)
Arizona Revised Statutes (LexisNexis) Ariz. Rev. Stat. § x-x (LexisNexis <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Ariz. Sess. Laws.
Session Laws, Arizona <year> Ariz. Sess. Laws <page no.>
Arizona Legislative Service (West) <year> Ariz. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Arizona Administrative Code Ariz. Admin. Code § x-x-x (<year>)
Administrative register
Arizona Administrative Register <vol. no.> Ariz. Admin. Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Arkansas
Public domain citation format: Arkansas has adopted a public domain citation format for cases after February 13, 2009. For additional instruction, consult Arkansas Supreme Court Rule 5-2. The format is:
  • Smith v. Hickman, 2009 Ark. 12, at 1, 273 S.W.3d 340, 343.
  • Doe v. State, 2009 Ark. App. 318, at 7, 2009 WL 240613, at *8.
Supreme Court (Ark.): Cite to S.W., S.W.2d, or S.W.3d.
South Western Reporter 1886–date S.W., S.W.2d, or S.W.3d
Arkansas Reports 1837–2009 Ark.
Court of Appeals (Ark. Ct. App.): Cite to S.W.2d or S.W.3d.
South Western Reporter 1979–date S.W.2d, S.W.3d
Arkansas Appellate Reports 1981–2009 Ark. App.
Arkansas Reports 1979–1981 Ark.
Statutory compilations: Cite to Ark. Code Ann. (published by LexisNexis).
Arkansas Code of 1987 Annotated (LexisNexis) Ark. Code Ann. § x-x-x (<year>)
West's Arkansas Code Annotated Ark. Code Ann. § x-x-x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Ark. Acts.
Acts of Arkansas (West) <year> Ark. Acts <page no.>
Arkansas Code of 1987 Annotated <year> Advance Legislative Service (LexisNexis) <year>-<pamph. no.> Ark. Adv. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (LexisNexis)
West's Arkansas Legislative Service <year> Ark. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Code of Arkansas Rules (LexisNexis) x-x-x Ark. Code R. § x (LexisNexis <year>)
Administrative registers: Cite to Ark. Reg..
Arkansas Register <vol. no.> Ark. Reg. <page no.> (<month year>)
Arkansas Government Register <iss. no.> Ark. Gov’t Reg. <page no.> (LexisNexis <month year>)
California
Supreme Court (Cal.): Cite to P., P.2d, or P.3d.
Pacific Reporter 1883–date P., P.2d, P.3d
California Reports 1850–date Cal., Cal. 2d, Cal. 3d, Cal. 4th
West’s California Reporter 1959–date Cal. Rptr., Cal. Rptr. 2d, Cal. Rptr. 3d
California Unreported Cases 1855–1910 Cal. Unrep.
Court of Appeal (Cal. Ct. App.), previously District Court of Appeal (Cal. Dist. Ct. App.): Cite to P. or P.2d (before 1960) or Cal. Rptr., Cal. Rptr. 2d (after 1959), or Cal. Rptr. 3d.
West’s California Reporter 1959–date Cal. Rptr., Cal. Rptr. 2d, Cal. Rptr. 3d
Pacific Reporter 1905–1959 P., P.2d
California Appellate Reports 1905–date Cal. App., Cal. App. 2d, Cal. App. 3d, Cal. App. 4th
Appellate Divisions of the Superior Court (Cal. App. Dep’t Super. Ct.): Cite to P. or P.2d (before 1960) or to Cal. Rptr., Cal. Rptr. 2d (after 1959), or Cal. Rptr. 3d.
West’s California Reporter 1959–date Cal. Rptr., Cal. Rptr. 2d, Cal. Rptr. 3d
Pacific Reporter 1929–1959 P., P.2d
California Appellate Reports Supplement (bound with Cal. App.) 1929–date Cal. App. Supp., Cal. App. 2d Supp., Cal. App. 3d Supp., Cal. App. 4th Supp.
Statutory compilations: Cite to either the West or the Deering subject-matter code.
West’s Annotated California Codes Cal. <Subject> Code § x (West <year>)
Deering’s California Codes, Annotated (LexisNexis) Cal. <Subject> Code § x (Deering <year>)
Agricultural (renamed “Food and Agricultural” in 1972) Agric.
Business and Professions Bus. & Prof.
Civil Civ.
Civil Procedure Civ. Proc.
Commercial Com.
Corporations Corp.
Education Educ.
Elections Elec.
Evidence Evid.
Family Fam.
Financial Fin.
Fish and Game Fish & Game
Food and Agricultural (formerly “Agricultural”) Food & Agric.
Government Gov’t
Harbors and Navigation Harb. & Nav.
Health and Safety Health & Safety
Insurance Ins.
Labor Lab.
Military and Veterans Mil. & Vet.
Penal Penal
Probate Prob.
Public Contract Pub. Cont.
Public Resources Pub. Res.
Public Utilities Pub. Util.
Revenue and Taxation Rev. & Tax.
Streets and Highways Sts. & High.
Unemployment Insurance Unemp. Ins.
Vehicle Veh.
Water Water
Welfare and Institutions Welf. & Inst.
Session laws: Cite to Cal. Stat..
Statutes of California <year> Cal. Stat. <page no.>
West’s California Legislative Service <year> Cal. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Deering’s California Advance Legislative Service (LexisNexis) <year>-<pamph. no.> Cal. Adv. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (LexisNexis)
Administrative compilation
California Code of Regulations (West) Cal. Code Regs. tit. x, § x (<year>)
Administrative register
California Regulatory Notice Register <iss. no.> Cal. Regulatory Notice Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Colorado
Public domain citation format: Colorado has adopted a public domain citation format for cases after January 3, 2012. For additional information, consult Rules of the Supreme Court of Colorado, Chief Justice Directive 12-01. The format is:
  • Smith v. Jones, 2012 CO 22.
  • Smith v. Jones, 2012 CO 22, ¶¶ 13–14.
  • Jones v. Smith, 2012 COA 35.
Supreme Court (Colo.): Cite to P., P.2d, or P.3d, if found there; else, cite to Colo., if found there, or to Colo. Law. or Brief Times Rptr.
Pacific Reporter 1883–date P., P.2d, P.3d
Colorado Reports 1864–1980 Colo.
Colorado Lawyer 1972–date Colo. Law.
Brief Times Reporter 1977–1996 Brief Times Rptr.
Colorado Journal 1996–2002 Colo. J.
Law Week Colorado 2002–date L. Week Colo.
Court of Appeals (Colo. App.): Cite to P., P.2d, or P.3d, if found there; else, cite to Colo. App., if found there, or else to one of the other reporters listed below.
Pacific Reporter 1970–date P.2d, P.3d
1912–1915 P.
1891–1905 P.
Colorado Court of Appeals Reports 1891–1905 Colo. App.
1912–1915 Colo. App.
1970–1980 Colo. App.
Colorado Lawyer 1972–date Colo. Law.
Brief Times Reporter 1977–1996 Brief Times Rptr.
Colorado Journal 1996–2002 Colo. J.
Law Week Colorado 2002–date L. Week Colo.
Statutory compilations: Cite to Colo. Rev. Stat..
Colorado Revised Statutes (LexisNexis) Colo. Rev. Stat. § x-x-x (<year>)
West’s Colorado Revised Statutes Annotated Colo. Rev. Stat. Ann. § x-x-x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Colo. Sess. Laws.
Session Laws of Colorado (LexisNexis) <year> Colo. Sess. Laws <page no.>
Colorado Legislative Service (West) <year> Colo. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilations: Cite to Colo. Code Regs..
Colorado Code of Regulations Colo. Code Regs. § x-x (<year>)
Code of Colorado Regulations (LexisNexis) <vol. no.> Colo. Code Regs. § x-x (LexisNexis <year>)
Administrative register
Colorado Register <iss. no.> Colo. Reg. <page no.> (<month year>)
Connecticut
Supreme Court (Conn.), previously Supreme Court of Errors (Conn.): Cite to A., A.2d, or A.3d.
Atlantic Reporter 1885–date A., A.2d, A.3d
Connecticut Reports 1814–date Conn.
Day 1802–1813 Day
Root 1789–1798 Root
Kirby 1785–1789 Kirby
Appellate Court (Conn. App. Ct.): Cite to A.2d or A.3d.
Atlantic Reporter 1983–date A.2d, A.3d
Connecticut Appellate Reports 1983–date Conn. App.
Superior Court (Conn. Super. Ct.) and Court of Common Pleas (Conn. C.P.): Cite to A.2d or A.3d, if found there; else, cite to Conn. Supp., if found there, or else to one of the other reporters listed below.
Atlantic Reporter 1954–date A.2d, A.3d
Connecticut Supplement 1935–date Conn. Supp.
Connecticut Law Reporter 1990–date Conn. L. Rptr.
Connecticut Superior Court Reports 1986–1994 Conn. Super. Ct.
Circuit Court (Conn. Cir. Ct.): Cite to A.2d or A.3d.
Atlantic Reporter 1961–1974 A.2d, A.3d
Connecticut Circuit Court Reports 1961–1974 Conn. Cir. Ct.
Statutory compilations: Cite to Conn. Gen. Stat..
General Statutes of Connecticut Conn. Gen. Stat. § x-x (<year>)
Connecticut General Statutes Annotated (West) Conn. Gen. Stat. Ann. § x-x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Conn. Acts, Conn. Pub. Acts, or Conn. Spec. Acts.
Connecticut Public & Special Acts 1972–date <year> Conn. Acts <page no.> ([Reg. or Spec.] Sess.)
Connecticut Public Acts 1650–1971 <year> Conn. Pub. Acts <page no.>
Connecticut Special Acts (Resolves & Private Laws, Private & Special Laws, Special Laws, Resolves & Private Acts, Resolutions & Private Acts, Private Acts & Resolutions, and Special Acts & Resolutions) 1789–1971 <year> Conn. Spec. Acts <page no.>
Connecticut Legislative Service (West) <year> Conn. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Regulations of Connecticut State Agencies Conn. Agencies Regs. § x-x-x (<year>)
Administrative registers: Cite to Conn. L.J..
Connecticut Law Journal <vol. no.> Conn. L.J. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Connecticut Government Register (LexisNexis) <iss. no.> Conn. Gov’t Reg. <page no.> (LexisNexis <month year>)
Delaware
Supreme Court (Del.), previously Court of Errors and Appeals (Del.): Cite to A., A.2d, or A.3d.
Atlantic Reporter 1886–date A., A.2d, A.3d
Delaware Reports
31 Del. to 59 Del. 1919–1966 Del.
Boyce 1909–1920 e.g., 24 Del. (1 Boyce)
Pennewill 1897–1909 e.g., 17 Del. (1 Penne.)
Marvel 1893–1897 e.g., 15 Del. (1 Marv.)
Houston 1855–1893 e.g., 6 Del. (1 Houst.)
Harrington 1832–1855 e.g., 1 Del. (1 Harr.)
Delaware Cases 1792–1830 Del. Cas.
Court of Chancery (Del. Ch.): Cite to A., A.2d, or A.3d.
Atlantic Reporter 1886–date A., A.2d, A.3d
Delaware Chancery Reports 1814–1968 Del. Ch.
Delaware Cases 1792–1830 Del. Cas.
Superior Court (Del. Super. Ct.), previously Superior Court and Orphans’ Court (Del. Super. Ct. & Orphans’ Ct.): Cite to A.2d or A.3d, if found there; else, cite to one of the official reporters listed under Supreme Court (Del.).
Atlantic Reporter 1951–date A.2d, A.3d
Family Court (Del. Fam. Ct.): Cite to A.2d or A.3d.
Atlantic Reporter 1977–date A.2d, A.3d
Statutory compilations: Cite to Del. Code Ann..
Delaware Code Annotated (LexisNexis) Del. Code Ann. tit. x, § x (<year>)
West’s Delaware Code Annotated Del. Code Ann. tit. x, § x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Del. Laws.
Laws of Delaware <vol. no.> Del. Laws <page no.> (<year>)
Delaware Code Annotated <year> Advance Legislative Service (LexisNexis) <year>-<pamph. no.> Del. Code. Ann. Adv. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (LexisNexis)
West’s Delaware Legislative Service <year> Del. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilations: Cite to Del. Admin. Code.
Delaware Administrative Code x-x-x Del. Admin. Code § x (<year>)
Code of Delaware Regulations (LexisNexis) x-x-x Del. Code Regs. § x (LexisNexis <year>)
Administrative registers: Cite to Del. Reg. Regs..
Delaware Register of Regulations <vol. no.> Del. Reg. Regs. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Delaware Government Register (LexisNexis) <iss. no.> Del Gov’t Reg. <page no.> (LexisNexis <month year>)
District of Columbia
Court of Appeals (D.C.), previously Municipal Court of Appeals (D.C.): Cite to A.2d or A.3d.
Atlantic Reporter 1943–date A.2d, A.3d
United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (D.C. Cir.), previously Court of Appeals of/for the District of Columbia (D.C. Cir.), previously Supreme Court of the District of Columbia (D.C.): Cite to F., F.2d, or F.3d.
Federal Reporter 1919–date F., F.2d, F.3d
United States Court of Appeals Reports 1941–date U.S. App. D.C.
Appeal Cases, District of Columbia 1893–1941 App. D.C.
District of Columbia Reports
Tucker and Clephane 1892–1893 21 D.C. (Tuck. & Cl.)
Mackey 1880–1892 <12–20> D.C. (Mackey <1–9>)
MacArthur and Mackey 1879–1880 11 D.C. (MacArth. & M.)
MacArthur 1873–1879 <8–10> D.C. (MacArth. <1–3>)
District of Columbia Reports (reported by Mackey) 1863–1872 <6–7> D.C.
Hayward & Hazleton, Circuit Court (Circuit Court Reports, vols. 6–7) 1840–1863 <1–2> Hay. & Haz.
Cranch, Circuit Court 1801–1840 <1–5> D.C. (Cranch <1–5>)
Superior Court (D.C. Super. Ct.), previously Municipal Court (D.C. Mun. Ct.): Cite to Daily Wash. L. Rptr.
Daily Washington Law Reporter 1971–date Daily Wash. L. Rptr.
Statutory compilations: Cite to D.C. Code.
District of Columbia Official Code (LexisNexis) D.C. Code § x-x (<year>)
West's District of Columbia Code Annotated (West) D.C. Code Ann. § x-x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Stat., D.C. Reg., or D.C. Code Adv. Leg. Serv..
United States Statutes at Large <vol. no.> Stat. <page no.> (<year>)
District of Columbia Register <vol. no.> D.C. Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
District of Columbia Official Code Lexis Advance Legislative Service <year>-<pamph. no.> D.C. Code Adv. Leg. Serv. <page no.>
District of Columbia Session Law Service West <year> D.C. Sess. L. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Municipal regulations: Cite to D.C. Mun. Regs..
Code of D.C. Municipal Regulations D.C. Mun. Regs. tit. x, § x (<year>)
Code of District of Columbia Municipal Regulations (LexisNexis) D.C. Code Mun. Regs. tit. x § x (LexisNexis <year>)
Administrative register
District of Columbia Register <vol. no.> D.C. Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Florida
Supreme Court (Fla.): Cite to So., So. 2d, or So. 3d.
Southern Reporter 1886–date So., So. 2d, So. 3d
Florida Reports 1846–1948 Fla.
Florida Law Weekly 1978–date Fla. L. Weekly
District Court of Appeal (Fla. Dist. Ct. App.): Cite to So. 2d or So. 3d.
Southern Reporter 1957–date So. 2d, So. 3d
Florida Law Weekly 1978–date Fla. L. Weekly
Circuit Court (Fla. Cir. Ct.), County Court (e.g., Fla. Orange County Ct.), Public Service Commission (Fla. P.S.C.), and other lower courts of record: Cite to Fla. Supp. or Fla. Supp. 2d.
Florida Supplement 1950–1991 Fla. Supp., Fla. Supp. 2d
Florida Law Weekly Supplement 1992–date Fla. L. Weekly Supp.
Statutory compilations: Cite to Fla. Stat..
Florida Statutes Fla. Stat. § x.x (<year>)
West’s Florida Statutes Annotated Fla. Stat. Ann. § x.x (West <year>)
LexisNexis Florida Statutes Annotated Fla. Stat. Ann. § x.x (LexisNexis <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Fla. Laws.
Laws of Florida <year> Fla. Laws <page no.>
West’s Florida Session Law Service <year> Fla. Sess. Law Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Florida Administrative Code Annotated (LexisNexis) Fla. Admin. Code Ann. r. x-x.x (<year>)
Administrative register: Cite to Fla. Admin. Reg..
Florida Administrative Register 2012–date <vol. no.> Fla. Admin. Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Florida Administrative Weekly (LexisNexis) 1996–2012 <vol. no.> Fla. Admin. Weekly <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Georgia
Supreme Court (Ga.): Cite to S.E. or S.E.2d.
South Eastern Reporter 1887–date S.E., S.E.2d
Georgia Reports 1846–date Ga.
Court of Appeals (Ga. Ct. App.): Cite to S.E. or S.E.2d.
South Eastern Reporter 1907–date S.E., S.E.2d
Georgia Appeals Reports 1907–date Ga. App.
Statutory compilations: Cite to Ga. Code Ann. (published by LexisNexis).
Official Code of Georgia Annotated (LexisNexis) Ga. Code Ann. § x-x-x (<year>)
West’s Code of Georgia Annotated Ga. Code Ann. § x-x-x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Ga. Laws.
Georgia Laws <year> Ga. Laws <page no.>
Georgia <year> Advance Legislative Service (LexisNexis) <year>-<pamph. no.> Ga. Code Ann. Adv. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (LexisNexis)
West’s Georgia Legislative Service <year> Ga. Code Ann. Adv. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Official Compilation Rules and Regulations of the State of Georgia Ga. Comp. R. & Regs. x-x-x.x (<year>)
Administrative register
Georgia Government Register (LexisNexis) <iss. no.> Ga. Gov’t Reg. <page no.> (LexisNexis <month year>)
Hawaii
Supreme Court (Haw.): Cite to P.2d or P.3d.
Pacific Reporter 1959–date P.2d, P.3d
West’s Hawaii Reports (begins with vol. 76) 1994–date Haw.
Hawaii Reports (ends with vol. 75) 1847–1994 Haw.
Intermediate Court of Appeals (Haw. Ct. App.): Cite to P.2d or P.3d.
Pacific Reporter 1980–date P.2d, P.3d
West’s Hawaii Reports 1994–date Haw.
Hawaii Appellate Reports 1980–1994 Haw. App.
Statutory compilations: Cite to Haw. Rev. Stat..
Hawaii Revised Statutes Haw. Rev. Stat. § x-x (<year>)
Michie’s Hawaii Revised Statutes Annotated (LexisNexis) Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann. § x-x (LexisNexis <year>)
West’s Hawai'i Revised Statutes Annotated Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann. § x-x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Haw. Sess. Laws.
Session Laws of Hawaii <year> Haw. Sess. Laws <page no.>
Michie’s Hawaii Revised Statutes Annotated Advance Legislative Service (LexisNexis) <year>-<pamph. no.> Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann. Adv. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (LexisNexis)
West’s Hawai'i Legislative Service <year> Haw. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Code of Hawaii Rules (LexisNexis) Haw. Code R. § x-x-x (LexisNexis <year>)
Administrative register
Hawaii Government Register (LexisNexis) <iss. no.> Haw. Gov’t Reg. <page no.> (LexisNexis <month year>)
Idaho
Supreme Court (Idaho): Cite to P., P.2d, or P.3d.
Pacific Reporter 1883–date P., P.2d, P.3d
Idaho Reports 1866–date Idaho
Court of Appeals (Idaho Ct. App.): Cite to P.2d or P.3d.
Pacific Reporter 1982–date P.2d, P.3d
Idaho Reports 1982–date Idaho
Statutory compilations: Cite to Idaho Code (published by LexisNexis).
Idaho Code (LexisNexis) Idaho Code § x-x (<year>)
West’s Idaho Code Annotated Idaho Code Ann. § x-x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Idaho Sess. Laws.
Idaho Session Laws <year> Idaho Sess. Laws <page no.>
Idaho Code Annotated Advance Legislative Service (LexisNexis) <year>-<pamph. no.> Idaho Code Ann. Adv. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (LexisNexis)
West’s Idaho Legislative Service <year> Idaho Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation: http://adminrules.gov/rules/current
Idaho Administrative Code Idaho Admin. Code r. x.x.x.x (<year>)
Administrative register
Idaho Administrative Bulletin <vol. no.> Idaho Admin. Bull. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Illinois
Public domain format: Illinois has adopted a public domain citation format for cases effective July 1, 2011. See Illinois Supreme Court Rule 6. The format is:
  • People v. Doe, 2011 IL 102345
  • People v. Doe, 2011 IL App (1st) 101234
Supreme Court (Ill.): Cite to N.E., N.E.2d, or N.E.3d.
North Eastern Reporter 1884–date N.E., N.E.2d, N.E.3d
Illinois Official Reports 2011–date <year> IL <docket no.>
Illinois Reports
11 Ill. to date 1849–2011 Ill., Ill. 2d
Gilman 1844–1849 e.g., 6 Ill. (1 Gilm.)
Scammon 1832–1843 e.g., 2 Ill. (1 Scam.)
Breese 1819–1831 1 Ill. (Breese)
West's Illinois Decisions 1976–date Ill. Dec.
Appellate Court (Ill. App. Ct.): Cite to N.E.2d, N.E.3d.
North Eastern Reporter 1936–date N.E.2d, N.E.3d
Illinois Official Reports 2011–date <year> IL App. (<court no.>)
lllinois Appellate Court Reports 1877–2011 Ill. App., Ill. App. 2d, Ill. App. 3d
West’s Illinois Decisions 1976–date Ill. Dec.
Illinois Circuit Court (Ill. Cir. Ct.), previously Court of Claims (Ill. Ct. Cl.): Cite to Ill. Ct. Cl..
Illinois Court of Claims Reports 1889–date Ill. Ct. Cl.
Statutory compilations: Cite to Ill. Comp. Stat..
Illinois Compiled Statutes <ch. no.> Ill. Comp. Stat. <act no.> / <sec. no.> (<year>)
West’s Smith-Hurd Illinois Compiled Statutes Annotated <ch. no.> Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. <act no.> / <sec. no.> (West <year>)
Illinois Compiled Statutes Annotated (LexisNexis) <ch. no.> Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. <act no.> / <sec. no.> (LexisNexis <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Ill. Laws.
Laws of Illinois <year> Ill. Laws <page no.>
Illinois Legislative Service (West) <year> Ill. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Illinois Compiled Statutes Annotated Advance Legislative Service (LexisNexis) <year>-<pamph. no.> Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. Adv. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (LexisNexis)
Administrative compilations: Cite to Ill. Admin. Code.
Illinois Administrative Code Ill. Admin. Code tit. x, § x (<year>)
Code of Illinois Rules (LexisNexis) <vol. no.> Ill. Code R. <rule no.> (LexisNexis <year>)
Administrative register
Illinois Register <vol. no.> Ill. Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Indiana
Supreme Court (Ind.): Cite to N.E., N.E.2d, N.E.3d.
North Eastern Reporter 1885–date N.E., N.E.2d, N.E.3d
Indiana Reports 1848–1981 Ind.
Blackford 1817–1847 Blackf.
Court of Appeals (Ind. Ct. App.), previously Appellate Court (Ind. App.): Cite to N.E., N.E.2d, or N.E.3d.
North Eastern Reporter 1891–date N.E., N.E.2d, N.E.3d
Indiana Court of Appeals Reports (prior to 1972, Indiana Appellate Court Reports) 1890–1979 Ind. App.
Tax Court (Ind. T.C.): Cite to N.E.2d or N.E.3d.
North Eastern Reporter 1986–date N.E., N.E.2d, N.E.3d
Statutory compilations: Cite to Ind. Code.
Indiana Code Ind. Code § x-x-x-x (<year>)
West’s Annotated Indiana Code Ind. Code Ann. § x-x-x-x (West <year>)
Burns Indiana Statutes Annotated (LexisNexis) Ind. Code Ann. § x-x-x-x (LexisNexis <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Ind. Acts.
Acts, Indiana <year> Ind. Acts <page no.>
West’s Indiana Legislative Service <year> Ind. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Burns Indiana Statutes Annotated Advance Legislative Service (LexisNexis) <year>-<pamph. no.> Ind. Stat. Ann. Adv. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (LexisNexis)
Administrative compilations: Cite to Ind. Admin. Code.
Indiana Administrative Code <tit. no.> Ind. Admin. Code <rule no.> (<year>)
West’s Indiana Administrative Code <tit. no.> Ind. Admin. Code <rule no.> (West <year>)
Administrative register
Indiana Register <vol. no.> Ind. Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Iowa
Supreme Court (Iowa): Cite to N.W. or N.W.2d.
North Western Reporter 1879–date N.W., N.W.2d
Iowa Reports (Cite to edition published by Clarke for vols. 1–8.) 1855–1968 Iowa
Greene 1847–1854 Greene
Morris 1839–1846 Morris
Bradford 1838–1841 Bradf.
Court of Appeals (Iowa Ct. App.): Cite to N.W.2d.
North Western Reporter 1977–date N.W.2d
Statutory compilations: Cite to Iowa Code.
Code of Iowa Iowa Code § x.x (<year>)
West’s Iowa Code Annotated Iowa Code Ann. § x.x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Iowa Acts.
Acts of the State of Iowa <year> Iowa Acts <page no.>
Iowa Legislative Service (West) <year> Iowa Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Iowa Administrative Code Iowa Admin. Code r. x-x.x (<year>)
Administrative register
Iowa Administrative Bulletin <vol. no.> Iowa Admin. Bull. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Kansas
Supreme Court (Kan.): Cite to P., P.2d, or P.3d.
Pacific Reporter 1883–date P., P.2d, P.3d
Kansas Reports 1862–date Kan.
McCahon 1858–1868 McCahon
Court of Appeals (Kan. Ct. App.): Cite to P., P.2d, or P.3d.
Pacific Reporter 1895–1901 P.
1977–date P.2d, P.3d
Kansas Court of Appeals Reports 1895–1901 Kan. App.
1977–date Kan. App. 2d
Statutory compilations: Cite to Kan. Stat. Ann..
Kansas Statutes Annotated Kan. Stat. Ann. § x-x (<year>)
West’s Kansas Statutes Annotated Kan. Stat. Ann. § x-x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Kan. Sess. Laws.
Session Laws of Kansas <year> Kan. Sess. Laws <page no.>
West’s Kansas Legislative Service <year> Kan. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Kansas Administrative Regulations (updated by supplements) Kan. Admin. Regs. § x-x-x (<year>)
Administrative register
Kansas Register <vol. no.> Kan. Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Kentucky
Supreme Court (Ky.): before 1976 the Court of Appeals (Ky.) was the highest state court. Cite to S.W., S.W.2d, or S.W.3d.
South Western Reporter 1886–date S.W., S.W.2d, S.W.3d
Kentucky Reports
78 Ky. to 314 Ky. 1879–1951 Ky.
Bush 1866–1879 e.g., 66 Ky. (3 Bush)
Duvall 1863–1866 e.g., 62 Ky. (1 Duv.)
Metcalf 1858–1863 e.g., 58 Ky. (1 Met.)
Monroe, Ben 1840–1857 e.g., 53 Ky. (14 B. Mon.)
Dana 1833–1840 e.g., 35 Ky. (5 Dana)
Marshall, J.J. 1829–1832 e.g., 27 Ky. (4 J.J. Marsh.)
Monroe, T.B. 1824–1828 e.g., 19 Ky. (3 T.B. Mon.)
Littell 1822–1824 e.g., 13 Ky. (3 Litt.)
Littell’s Selected Cases 1795–1821 e.g., 16 Ky. (1 Litt. Sel. Cas.)
Marshall, A.K. 1817–1821 e.g., 10 Ky. (3 A.K. Marsh.)
Bibb 1808–1817 e.g., 6 Ky. (3 Bibb)
Hardin 1805–1808 3 Ky. (Hard.)
Sneed 1801–1805 2 Ky. (Sneed)
Hughes 1785–1801 1 Ky. (Hughes)
Kentucky Opinions 1864–1886 Ky. Op.
Kentucky Law Reporter 1880–1908 Ky. L. Rptr.
Kentucky Appellate Reporter 1994–2000 Ky. App.
Kentucky Attorneys Memo 2001–2007 Ky. Att’y Memo
Kentucky Law Summary 1966–date Ky. L. Summ.
Court of Appeals (Ky. Ct. App.) (for decisions before 1976, see Kentucky Supreme Court): Cite to S.W.2d or S.W.3d.
South Western Reporter 1976–date S.W.2d, S.W.3d
Kentucky Appellate Reporter 1994–2000 Ky. App.
Kentucky Attorneys Memo 2001–2007 Ky. Att’y Memo
Kentucky Law Summary 1966–date Ky. L. Summ.
Statutory compilations: Cite to one of the following codes.
Baldwin’s Kentucky Revised Statutes Annotated (West) Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § x.x (West <year>)
Michie’s Kentucky Revised Statutes Annotated (LexisNexis) Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § x.x (LexisNexis <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Ky. Acts.
Acts of Kentucky <year> Ky. Acts <page no.>
Kentucky Revised Statutes and Rules Service (West) <year> Ky. Rev. Stat. & R. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Michie’s Kentucky Revised Statutes Advance Legislative Service (LexisNexis) <year>-<pamph. no.> Ky. Rev. Stat. Adv. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (LexisNexis)
Administrative compilation
Kentucky Administrative Regulations Service <tit. no.> Ky. Admin. Regs. <rule no.> (<year>)
Administrative register
Administrative Register of Kentucky <vol. no.> Ky. Admin. Reg. <page no.> (<month year>)
Louisiana
Public domain citation format: Louisiana has adopted a public domain citation format for cases after December 31, 1993. See Rules of the Supreme Court of Louisiana, part G, section 8. The format is:
  • Smith v. Jones, 93-2345 (La. 7/15/94); 650 So.2d 500
  • Smith v. Jones, 93-2345 (La. App. 1 Cir. 7/15/94); 660 So.2d 400
  • Smith v. Jones, 94-2345, p. 7 (La. 7/15/94); 650 So.2d 500, 504


Supreme Court (La.), before 1813 the Superior Court of Louisiana (La.) and the Superior Court of the Territory of Orleans (Orleans): Cite to So., So. 2d, or So. 3d.
Southern Reporter 1886–date So., So. 2d, So. 3d
Louisiana Reports 1901–1972 La.
Louisiana Annual Reports 1846–1900 La. Ann.
Robinson 1841–1846 Rob.
Louisiana Reports 1830–1841 La.
Martin (Louisiana Term Reports) 1809–1830 Mart. (o.s.), Mart. (n.s.)
Court of Appeal (La. Ct. App.): Cite to So., So. 2d, or So. 3d.
Southern Reporter 1928–date So., So. 2d, So. 3d
Louisiana Court of Appeals Reports 1924–1932 La. App.
Peltier’s Decisions, Parish at Orleans 1917–1924 Pelt.
Teissier, Orleans Court of Appeals 1903–1917 Teiss.
Gunby’s Reports 1885 Gunby
McGloin 1881–1884 McGl.
Statutory compilations: Cite to one of the following codes.
West’s Louisiana Statutes Annotated La. Stat. Ann. § x:x (<year>)
West’s Louisiana Children’s Code Annotated La. Child. Code Ann. art. x (<year>)
West’s Louisiana Civil Code Annotated La. Civ. Code Ann. art. x (<year>)
West’s Louisiana Code of Civil Procedure Annotated La. Code Civ. Proc. Ann. art. x (<year>)
West’s Louisiana Code of Criminal Procedure Annotated La. Code Crim. Proc. Ann. art. x (<year>)
West’s Louisiana Code of Evidence Annotated La. Code Evid. Ann. art. x (<year>)
West's Louisiana Constitution Annotated La. Const. Ann. art. x (<year>)
Session laws: Cite to La. Acts.
State of Louisiana: Acts of the Legislature <year> La. Acts <page no.>
West’s Louisiana Session Law Service <year> La. Sess. Law Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Louisiana Administrative Code La. Admin. Code tit. x, § x (<year>)
Administrative register
Louisiana Register <vol. no.> La. Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Maine
Public domain citation format: Maine has adopted a public domain citation format for cases after December 31, 1996. See Administrative Order of the Supreme Judicial Court—New Citation Form (Aug. 20, 1996). The format is:
  • Estate of Hoch v. Stifel, 2011 ME 24, 16 A.3d 137
  • Estate of Hoch v. Stifel, 2011 ME 24, ¶ 11, 16 A.3d 137
  • Saucier v. State Tax Assessor, 1998 ME 61, 708 A.2d 28


Supreme Judicial Court (Me.): Cite to A., A.2d or A.3d.
Atlantic Reporter 1885–date A., A.2d, A.3d
Maine Reports 1820–1965 Me.
Statutory compilations: Cite to Me. Stat..
West’s Maine Statutes Me. Stat. tit. x, § x (<year>)
Maine Revised Statutes Annotated (West) Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. x, § x (<year>)
Session laws: Cite to Me. Laws.
Laws of the State of Maine <year> Me. Laws <page no.>
Maine Legislative Service (West) <year> Me. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Code of Maine Rules (LexisNexis) x-x-x Me. Code R. § x (LexisNexis <year>)
Administrative register
Maine Government Register (LexisNexis) <iss. no.> Me. Gov’t Reg. <page no.> (LexisNexis <month year>)
Maryland
Court of Appeals (Md.): Cite to A., A.2d or A.3d.
Atlantic Reporter 1885–date A., A.2d, A.3d
Maryland Reports 1851–date Md.
Gill 1843–1851 Gill
Gill and Johnson 1829–1842 G. & J.
Harris and Gill 1826–1829 H. & G.
Harris and Johnson 1800–1826 H. & J.
Harris and McHenry 1770–1774
1780–1799
H. & McH.
Court of Special Appeals (Md. Ct. Spec. App.): Cite to A.2d or A.3d.
Atlantic Reporter 1967–date A.2d, A.3d
Maryland Appellate Reports 1967–date Md. App.
Statutory compilations: Cite by subject to either Michie’s Md. Code Ann. or West’s Md. Code Ann..
Michie’s Annotated Code of Maryland (LexisNexis) Md. Code Ann., <subject> § x-x (LexisNexis <year>)
West’s Annotated Code of Maryland Md. Code Ann., <subject> § x-x (West <year>)
Agriculture Agric.
Business Occupations and Professions Bus. Occ. & Prof.
Business Regulation Bus. Reg.
Commercial Law Com. Law
Constitutions Const.
Corporations and Associations Corps. & Ass’ns
Correctional Services Corr. Servs.
Courts and Judicial Proceedings Cts. & Jud. Proc.
Criminal Law Crim. Law
Criminal Procedure Crim. Proc.
Economic Development Econ. Dev.
Education Educ.
Election Law Elec. Law
Environment Envir.
Estates and Trusts Est. & Trusts
Family Law Fam. Law
Financial Institutions Fin. Inst.
Health–General Health–Gen.
Health Occupations Health Occ.
Housing and Community Development Hous. & Cmty. Dev.
Human Services Hum. Servs.
Insurance Ins.
Labor and Employment Lab. & Empl.
Land Use Land Use
Local Government Local Gov't
Natural Resources Nat. Res.
Public Safety Pub. Safety
Public Utility Pub. Util.
Real Property Real Prop.
State Finance and Procurement State Fin. & Proc.
State Government State Gov’t
State Personnel and Pensions State Pers. & Pens.
Tax–General Tax–Gen.
Tax–Property Tax–Prop.
Transportation Transp.
Session laws: Cite to Md. Laws.
Laws of Maryland <year> Md. Laws <page no.>
Michie’s Annotated Code of Maryland Advance Legislative Service (LexisNexis) <year>-<pamph. no.> Md. Code Ann. Adv. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (LexisNexis)
West’s Maryland Legislative Service <year> Md. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Code of Maryland Regulations Md. Code Regs. <reg. no.> (<year>)
Administrative register
Maryland Register <vol. no.> Md. Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Massachusetts
Supreme Judicial Court (Mass.): Cite to N.E., or N.E.2d, N.E.3d..
North Eastern Reporter 1885–date N.E., N.E.2d, N.E.3d
Massachusetts Reports
97 Mass. to date 1867–date Mass.
Allen 1861–1867 e.g., 83 Mass. (1 Allen)
Gray 1854–1860 e.g., 67 Mass. (1 Gray)
Cushing 1848–1853 e.g., 55 Mass. (1 Cush.)
Metcalf 1840–1847 e.g., 42 Mass. (1 Met.)
Pickering 1822–1839 e.g., 18 Mass. (1 Pick.)
Tyng 1805–1822 e.g., 2 Mass. (1 Tyng)
Williams 1804–1805 1 Mass. (1 Will.)
Appeals Court (Mass. App. Ct.): Cite to N.E.2d, N.E.3d.
North Eastern Reporter 1972–date N.E.2d, N.E.3d
Massachusetts Appeals Court Reports 1972–date Mass. App. Ct.
Lower Courts (Mass. Dist. Ct., Bos. Mun. Ct.): Cite to Mass. App. Div., if found there; else cite to Mass. Supp. or Mass. App. Dec..
Reports of Massachusetts 1936–1950 Mass. App. Div.
Appellate Division 1980–date
Massachusetts Reports Supplement 1980–1983 Mass. Supp.
Massachusetts Appellate Decisions 1941–1977 Mass. App. Dec.
Appellate Division Advance Sheets 1975–1979 <year> Mass. App. Div. Adv. Sh. <page no.>
Statutory compilations: Cite to Mass. Gen. Laws.
General Laws of Massachusetts (Mass. Bar Ass’n/West) Mass. Gen. Laws ch. x, § x (<year>)
Massachusetts General Laws Annotated (West) Mass. Gen. Laws Ann. ch. x, § x (West <year>)
Annotated Laws of Massachusetts (LexisNexis) Mass. Ann. Laws ch. x, § x (LexisNexis <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Mass. Acts.
Acts and Resolves of Massachusetts <year> Mass. Acts <page no.>
Massachusetts Legislative Service (West) <year> Mass. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Massachusetts Advance Legislative Service (LexisNexis) <year>-<pamph. no.> Mass. Adv. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (LexisNexis)
Administrative compilations: Cite to official Mass. Code Regs..
Code of Massachusetts Regulations <tit. no.> Mass. Code Regs. <sec. no.> (<year>)
Code of Massachusetts Regulations (LexisNexis) <tit. no.> Mass. Code Regs. <sec. no.> (LexisNexis <year>)
Administrative register
Massachusetts Register <iss. no.> Mass. Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Michigan
Supreme Court (Mich.): Cite to N.W. or N.W.2d.
North Western Reporter 1879–date N.W., N.W.2d
Michigan Reports 1847–date Mich.
Douglass 1843–1847 Doug.
Blume, Unreported Opinions 1836–1843 Blume Unrep. Op.
Blume, Supreme Court Transactions 1836–1843 Blume Sup. Ct. Trans.
Court of Appeals (Mich. Ct. App.): Cite to N.W.2d.
North Western Reporter 1965–date N.W.2d
Michigan Appeals Reports 1965–date Mich. App.
Court of Claims (Mich. Ct. Cl.): Cite to Mich. Ct. Cl.
Michigan Court of Claims Reports 1939–1942 Mich. Ct. Cl.
Statutory compilations: Cite to Mich. Comp. Laws.
Michigan Compiled Laws (1979) Mich. Comp. Laws § x.x (<year>)
Michigan Compiled Laws Annotated (West) Mich. Comp. Laws Ann. § x.x (West <year>)
Michigan Compiled Laws Service (LexisNexis) Mich. Comp. Laws Serv. § x.x (LexisNexis <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Mich. Pub. Acts.
Public and Local Acts of the Legislature of the State of Michigan <year> Mich. Pub. Acts <page no.>
Michigan Legislative Service (West) <year> Mich. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Michigan Advance Legislative Service (LexisNexis) <year>-<pamph. no.> Mich. Adv. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (LexisNexis)
Administrative compilation
Michigan Administrative Code Mich. Admin. Code r. x.x (<year>)
Administrative register
Michigan Register <iss. no.> Mich. Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Minnesota
Supreme Court (Minn.): Cite to N.W. or N.W.2d.
North Western Reporter 1879–date N.W., N.W.2d
Minnesota Reports 1851–1977 Minn.
Court of Appeals (Minn. Ct. App.): Cite to N.W.2d.
North Western Reporter 1983–date N.W.2d
Statutory compilations: Cite to Minn. Stat..
Minnesota Statutes Minn. Stat. § x.x (<year>)
Minnesota Statutes Annotated (West) Minn. Stat. Ann. § x.x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Minn. Laws.
Laws of Minnesota <year> Minn. Laws <page no.>
Minnesota Session Law Service (West) <year> Minn. Sess. Law Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Minnesota Rules Minn. R. <rule no.> (<year>)
Administrative register
Minnesota State Register <vol. no.> Minn. Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Mississippi
Public domain citation format: Mississippi has adopted a public domain citation format for cases after July 1, 1997. See Mississippi Rules of Appellate Procedure, Rule 28(f). The format is:
  • Smith v. Jones, 95-KA-01234-SCT (Miss. 1997)
  • Smith v. Jones, 95-KA-01234-SCT (¶1) (Miss. 1997)
Supreme Court (Miss.): Cite to So., So. 2d, or So. 3d.
Southern Reporter 1886–date So., So. 2d, So. 3d
Mississippi Reports
23 Miss. to 254 Miss. 1851–1966 Miss.
Smedes and Marshall 1843–1850 e.g., 9 Miss. (1 S. & M.)
Howard 1834–1843 e.g., 2 Miss. (1 Howard)
Walker 1818–1832 1 Miss. (1 Walker)
Mississippi Decisions 1820–1885 Miss. Dec.
Court of Appeals (Miss. Ct. App.): Cite to So. 2d or So. 3d.
Southern Reporter 1995–date So. 2d, So. 3d
Statutory compilations: Cite to Miss. Code Ann. (published by LexisNexis).
Mississippi Code 1972 Annotated (LexisNexis) Miss. Code Ann. § x-x-x (<year>)
West’s Annotated Mississippi Code Miss. Code Ann. § x-x-x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Miss. Laws.
General Laws of Mississippi <year> Miss. Laws <page no.>
Mississippi General Laws Advance Sheets (LexisNexis) <year>-<pamph. no.> Miss. Laws Adv. Sh. <page no.> (LexisNexis)
West's Mississippi Legislative Service <year> Miss. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Code of Mississippi Rules (LexisNexis) <tit. no.>-<ch. no.> Miss. Code R. § x (LexisNexis <year>)
Administrative register
Mississippi Government Register (LexisNexis) <iss. no.> Miss. Gov’t Reg. <page no.> (LexisNexis <month year>)
Missouri
Supreme Court (Mo.): Cite to S.W., S.W.2d, or S.W.3d.
South Western Reporter 1886–date S.W., S.W.2d, S.W.3d
Missouri Reports 1821–1956 Mo.
Court of Appeals (Mo. Ct. App.): Cite to S.W., S.W.2d, or S.W.3d.
South Western Reporter 1902–date S.W., S.W.2d, S.W.3d
Missouri Appeals Reports 1876–1954 Mo. App.
Statutory compilations: Cite to Mo. Rev. Stat..
Missouri Revised Statutes Mo. Rev. Stat. § x.x (<year>)
Vernon’s Annotated Missouri Statutes (West) Mo. Ann. Stat. § x.x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Mo. Laws.
Session Laws of Missouri <year> Mo. Laws <page no.>
Missouri Legislative Service (West) <year> Mo. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Missouri Code of State Regulations Annotated Mo. Code Regs. Ann. tit. x, § x-x.x (<year>)
Administrative register
Missouri Register <vol. no.> Mo. Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Montana
Public domain citation format: Montana has adopted a public domain citation format for cases after December 31, 1997. See:
  • AF 06-0632 (02-25-10) Order In re: Opinion Forms and Citation Standards of the Supreme Court of Montana
  • Adoption of Public Domain and Neutral-Format Citation (Dec. 16, 1997)
  • AF 07-0064 (01-22-09) Order in the Matter of Amending Citations Standards for the Montana Supreme Court

The format is:

  • Doe v. Roe, 1998 MT 12, ¶¶ 44-45, 286 Mont. 175, 989 P.2d 1312
Supreme Court (Mont.): Cite to P., P.2d, or P.3d.
Pacific Reporter 1883–date P., P.2d, P.3d
Montana Reports 1868–date Mont.
State Reporter 1945–date State Rptr.
Statutory compilations: Cite to Mont. Code Ann..
Montana Code Annotated Mont. Code Ann. § x-x-x (<year>)
West's Montana Code Annotated Mont. Code Ann. § x-x-x (West <year>)
Session laws
Laws of Montana <year> Mont. Laws <page no.>
Administrative compilation
Administrative Rules of Montana Mont. Admin. R. <rule no.> (<year>)
Administrative register
Montana Administrative Register <iss. no.> Mont. Admin. Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Nebraska
Supreme Court (Neb.): Cite to N.W. or N.W.2d.
North Western Reporter 1879–date N.W., N.W.2d
Nebraska Reports 1860–date Neb.
Court of Appeals (Neb. Ct. App.): Cite to N.W.2d.
North Western Reporter 1992–date N.W.2d
Nebraska Appellate Reports 1992–date Neb. App.
Statutory compilations: Cite to Neb. Rev. Stat..
Revised Statutes of Nebraska Neb. Rev. Stat. § x-x (<year>)
Revised Statutes of Nebraska Annotated (LexisNexis) Neb. Rev. Stat. Ann. § x-x (LexisNexis <year>)
West's Revised Statutes of Nebraska Annotated Neb. Rev. Stat. Ann. § x-x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Neb. Laws.
Laws of Nebraska <year> Neb. Laws <page no.>
West's Nebraska Legislative Service <year> Neb. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Nebraska Administrative Code <tit. no.> Neb. Admin. Code § x-x (<year>)
Nevada
Supreme Court (Nev.): Cite to P., P.2d, or P.3d.
Pacific Reporter 1883–date P., P.2d, P.3d
Nevada Reports 1865–date Nev.
Statutory compilations: Cite to Nev. Rev. Stat..
Nevada Revised Statutes Nev. Rev. Stat. § x.x (<year>)
Michie's Nevada Revised Statutes Annotated (LexisNexis) Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. § x.x (LexisNexis <year>)
West’s Nevada Revised Statutes Annotated Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. § x.x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Nev. Stat..
Statutes of Nevada <year> Nev. Stat. <page no.>
West’s Nevada Legislative Service <year> Nev. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Nevada Administrative Code Nev. Admin. Code § x.x (<year>)
Administrative register
Nevada Register of Administrative Regulations <vol. no.> Nev. Reg. Admin. Regs. <reg. no.> (<month day, year>)
New Hampshire
Supreme Court (N.H.): Cite to A., A.2d, or A.3d.
Atlantic Reporter 1885–date A., A.2d, A.3d
New Hampshire Reports 1816–date N.H.
Statutory compilations: Cite to N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. (published by West).
New Hampshire Revised Statutes Annotated (West) N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § x:x (<year>)
Lexis New Hampshire Revised Statutes Annotated N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § x:x (LexisNexis <year>)
Session laws: Cite to N.H. Laws or N.H. Legis. Serv..
Laws of the State of New Hampshire (West) <year> N.H. Laws <page no.>
New Hampshire Legislative Service (West) <year> N.H. Legis. Serv. <page no.>
Lexis New Hampshire Revised Statutes Annotated <year> Advance Legislative Service (LexisNexis) <year>-<pamph. no.> N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. Adv. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (LexisNexis)
Administrative compilations: Cite to N.H. Code Admin. R. Ann..
New Hampshire Code of Administrative Rules Annotated (LexisNexis) N.H. Code Admin. R. Ann. <dep't name as abbreviated in Rules> <rule no.> (<year>)
Code of New Hampshire Rules (LexisNexis) N.H. Code R. <dep't name as abbreviated in Rules> <rule no.> (LexisNexis <year>)
Administrative registers: Cite to N.H. Rulemaking Reg..
New Hampshire Rulemaking Register <vol. no.> N.H. Rulemaking Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
New Hampshire Government Register (LexisNexis) <iss. no.> N.H. Gov’t Reg. <page no.> (LexisNexis <month year>)
New Jersey
Supreme Court (N.J.), previously Court of Errors and Appeals (N.J.): Cite to A., A.2d, or A.3d.
Atlantic Reporter 1885–date A., A.2d, A.3d
New Jersey Reports 1948–date N.J.
New Jersey Law Reports 1790–1948 N.J.L.
New Jersey Equity Reports 1845–1948 N.J. Eq.
New Jersey Miscellaneous Reports 1923–1948 N.J. Misc.
Superior Court (N.J. Super. Ct. App. Div., N.J. Super. Ct. Ch. Div., N.J. Super. Ct. Law Div.), previously Court of Chancery (N.J. Ch.), Supreme Court (N.J. Sup. Ct.), and Prerogative Court (N.J. Prerog. Ct.): Cite to A., A.2d, or A.3d.
Atlantic Reporter 1885–date A., A.2d, A.3d
New Jersey Superior Court Reports 1948–date N.J. Super.
New Jersey Law Reports 1790–1948 N.J.L.
New Jersey Equity Reports 1830–1948 N.J. Eq.
New Jersey Miscellaneous Reports 1923–1948 N.J. Misc.
County Court (e.g., Essex County Ct.) and other lower courts: Cite to A.2d.
Tax Court (N.J. Tax Ct.): Cite to N.J. Tax.
New Jersey Tax Court Reports 1979–date N.J. Tax
Statutory compilations: Cite to N.J. Stat. Ann..
New Jersey Statutes Annotated (West) N.J. Stat. Ann. § x:x (West <year>)
New Jersey Revised Statutes (2013) N.J. Rev. Stat. § x:x (<year>)
Session laws: Cite to N.J. Laws.
Laws of New Jersey <year> N.J. Laws <page no.>
New Jersey Session Law Service (West) <year> N.J. Sess. Law Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
New Jersey Administrative Code (LexisNexis) N.J. Admin. Code § x:x-x.x (<year>)
Administrative register
New Jersey Register (LexisNexis) <vol. no.> N.J. Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Administrative report
New Jersey Administrative Reports 1979–date N.J. Admin., N.J. Admin. 2d
New Mexico
Public domain citation format: New Mexico has adopted a public domain citation format for cases effective July 1, 2013. See New Mexico Supreme Court Rule 23-112 (effective June 4, 2004). The format is:
  • Bianco v. Horror One Prods., 2009-NMSC-006, ¶ 10, 145 N.M. 551.
  • Bianco v. Horror One Prods., 2009-NMSC-006, ¶ 10, 145 N.M. 551, 202 P.3d 810.
  • State v. Dickert, 2012-NMCA-004, ¶ 28.
  • State v. Dickert, 2012-NMCA-004, ¶ 28, 268 P.3d 515.
Supreme Court (N.M.): Cite to P., P.2d, or P.3d.
Pacific Reporter 1883–date P., P.2d, P.3d
New Mexico Reports 1852–2012 N.M.
Court of Appeals (N.M. Ct. App.): Cite to P.2d or P.3d.
Pacific Reporter 1967–date P.2d, P.3d
New Mexico Reports 1967–2012 N.M.
Statutory compilations: Cite to N.M. Stat. Ann..
New Mexico Statutes Annotated 1978 (Conway Greene) N.M. Stat. Ann. § x-x-x (<year>)
West’s New Mexico Statutes Annotated N.M. Stat. Ann. § x-x-x (West <year>)
Michie's Annotated Statutes of New Mexico (LexisNexis) N.M. Stat. Ann. § x-x-x (LexisNexis <year>)
Session laws: Cite to N.M. Laws.
Laws of the State of New Mexico <year> N.M. Laws <page no.>
New Mexico Advance Legislative Service (Conway Greene) <year> N.M. Adv. Legis. Serv. <page no.>
West's New Mexico Legislative Service <year> N.M. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Code of New Mexico Rules (LexisNexis) N.M. Code R. § x.x.x.x (LexisNexis <year>)
Administrative register
New Mexico Register <vol. no.> N.M. Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
New York
Court of Appeals (N.Y.) after 1847: Cite to N.E., N.E.2d, or N.E.3d.
North Eastern Reporter 1885–date N.E., N.E.2d, N.E.3d
New York Reports (The first series of N.Y. is reprinted in N.Y.S. and N.Y.S.2d without separate pagination. Do not include a parallel cite to N.Y.S. or N.Y.S.2d in citations to the first series of N.Y.) 1847–date N.Y., N.Y.2d
West’s New York Supplement 1956–date N.Y.S.2d
Court for the Correction of Errors (N.Y.) and Supreme Court of Judicature (N.Y. Sup. Ct.) (highest state courts of law before 1847): Cite to one of the following reporters.
Lockwood’s Reversed Cases 1799–1847 Lock. Rev. Cas.
Denio’s Reports 1845–1848 Denio
Hill and Denio Supplement (Lalor) 1842–1844 Hill & Den.
Hill’s Reports 1841–1844 Hill
Edmond’s Select Cases 1834–1853 Edm. Sel. Cas.
Yates’ Select Cases 1809 Yates Sel. Cas.
Anthon’s Nisi Prius Cases 1807–1851 Ant. N.P. Cas.
Wendell’s Reports 1828–1841 Wend.
Cowen’s Reports 1823–1829 Cow.
Johnson’s Reports 1806–1823 Johns.
Caines’ Reports 1803–1805 Cai.
Caines’ Cases 1796–1805 Cai. Cas.
Coleman & Caines’ Cases 1794–1805 Cole. & Cai. Cas.
Johnson’s Cases 1799–1803 Johns. Cas.
Coleman’s Cases 1791–1800 Cole. Cas.
Court of Chancery (N.Y. Ch.) (highest state court of equity before 1848): Cite to one of the following reporters.
Edwards’ Chancery Reports 1831–1850 Edw. Ch.
Barbour’s Chancery Reports 1845–1848 Barb. Ch.
Sandford’s Chancery Reports 1843–1847 Sand. Ch.
Saratoga Chancery Sentinel 1841–1847 Sarat. Ch. Sent.
Paige’s Chancery Reports 1828–1845 Paige Ch.
Clarke’s Chancery Reports 1839–1841 Cl. Ch.
Hoffman’s Chancery Reports 1839–1840 Hoff. Ch.
Hopkins’ Chancery Reports 1823–1826 Hopk. Ch.
Lansing’s Chancery Reports 1824–1826 Lans. Ch.
Johnson’s Chancery Reports 1814–1823 Johns. Ch.
New York Chancery Reports Annotated 1814–1847 N.Y. Ch. Ann.
Supreme Court, Appellate Division (N.Y. App. Div.), previously Supreme Court, General Term (N.Y. Gen. Term): Cite to N.Y.S. or N.Y.S.2d.
West’s New York Supplement 1888–date N.Y.S., N.Y.S.2d
Appellate Division Reports 1896–date A.D., A.D.2d, A.D.3d
Supreme Court Reports 1874–1896 N.Y. Sup. Ct.
Lansing’s Reports 1869–1873 Lans.
Barbour’s Supreme Court Reports 1847–1877 Barb.
Other lower courts (e.g., N.Y. App. Term, N.Y. Sup. Ct., N.Y. Ct. Cl., N.Y. Civ. Ct., N.Y. Crim. Ct., N.Y. Fam. Ct.): Cite to N.Y.S. or N.Y.S.2d.
West’s New York Supplement 1888–date N.Y.S., N.Y.S.2d
New York Miscellaneous Reports 1892–date Misc., Misc. 2d
Other lower courts before 1888: Cite to one of the following reporters.
Abbott’s New Cases 1876–1894 Abb. N. Cas.
Abbott’s Practice Reports 1854–1875 Abb. Pr., Abb. Pr. (n.s.)
Howard’s Practice Reports 1844–1886 How. Pr., How. Pr. (n.s.)
Statutory compilations: Cite to one of the following sources.
McKinney’s Consolidated Laws of New York Annotated (West) N.Y. <subject> Law § x (McKinney <year>)
New York Consolidated Laws Service (LexisNexis) N.Y. <subject> Law § x (Consol. <year>)
New York Consolidated Laws Unannotated (LexisNexis) N.Y. <subject> Law § x (LexisNexis <year>)
Abandoned Property Aband. Prop.
Agricultural Conservation Agric. Conserv.
Agriculture and Markets Agric. & Mkts.
Alcoholic Beverage Control Alco. Bev. Cont.
Alternative County Government Alt. County Gov’t
Arts and Cultural Affairs Arts & Cult. Aff.
Banking Banking
Benevolent Orders Ben. Ord.
Business Corporation Bus. Corp.
Canal Canal
Civil Practice Law and Rules N.Y. C.P.L.R. <rule no.> (McKinney <year>)or:N.Y. C.P.L.R. <rule no.> (Consol. <year>)
Civil Rights Civ. Rights
Civil Service Civ. Serv.
Commerce Com.
Cooperative Corporations Coop. Corp.
Correction Correct.
County County
Criminal Procedure Crim. Proc.
Debtor and Creditor Debt. & Cred.
Domestic Relations Dom. Rel.
Economic Development Econ. Dev.
Education Educ.
Elder Elder
Election Elec.
Eminent Domain Procedure Em. Dom. Proc.
Employers’ Liability Empl’rs Liab.
Energy Energy
Environmental Conservation Envtl. Conserv.
Estates, Powers and Trusts Est. Powers & Trusts
Executive Exec.
Financial Services Fin. Serv.
General Associations Gen. Ass’ns
General Business Gen. Bus.
General City Gen. City
General Construction Gen. Constr.
General Municipal Gen. Mun.
General Obligations Gen. Oblig.
Highway High.
Indian Indian
Insurance Ins.
Judiciary Jud.
Judiciary Court Acts Jud. Ct. Acts
Labor Lab.
Legislative Legis.
Lien Lien
Limited Liability Company Ltd. Liab. Co.
Local Finance Local Fin.
Mental Hygiene Mental Hyg.
Military Mil.
Multiple Dwelling Mult. Dwell.
Multiple Residence Mult. Resid.
Municipal Home Rule and Statute of Local Governments Mun. Home Rule
Navigation Nav.
Not-for-Profit Corporation Not-for-Profit Corp.
Optional County Government Opt. Cty. Gov’t
Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation Parks Rec. & Hist. Preserv.
Partnership P’ship
Penal Penal
Personal Property Pers. Prop.
Private Housing Finance Priv. Hous. Fin.
Public Authorities Pub. Auth.
Public Buildings Pub. Bldgs.
Public Health Pub. Health
Public Housing Pub. Hous.
Public Lands Pub. Lands
Public Officers Pub. Off.
Public Service Pub. Serv.
Racing, Pari-Mutuel Wagering and Breeding Rac. Pari-Mut. Wag. & Breed.
Railroad R.R.
Rapid Transit Rapid Trans.
Real Property Real Prop.
Real Property Actions and Proceedings Real Prop. Acts.
Real Property Tax Real Prop. Tax
Religious Corporations Relig. Corp.
Retirement and Social Security Retire. & Soc. Sec.
Rural Electric Cooperative Rural Elec. Coop.
Second Class Cities Second Class Cities
Social Services Soc. Serv.
Soil and Water Conservation Districts Soil & Water Conserv. Dist.
State State
State Administrative Procedure Act A.P.A.
State Finance State Fin.
State Printing and Public Documents State Print. & Pub. Docs.
State Technology State Tech.
Statutes Stat.
Surrogate’s Court Procedure Act Surr. Ct. Proc. Act
Tax Tax
Town Town
Transportation Transp.
Transportation Corporations Transp. Corp.
Unconsolidated Unconsol.
Uniform Commercial Code U.C.C.
Vehicle and Traffic Veh. & Traf.
Village Village
Volunteer Ambulance Workers’ Benefit Vol. Ambul. Workers’ Ben.
Volunteer Firefighters’ Benefit Vol. Fire. Ben.
Workers’ Compensation Workers’ Comp.
Uncompiled laws: Cite to one of the following sources. For the user’s convenience, the McKinney’s volume in which the law appears is indicated parenthetically below.
McKinney’s Consolidated Laws N.Y. <law> § x (McKinney <year>)
Consolidated Laws Service N.Y. <law> § x (Consol. <year>)
LexisNexis New York Consolidated Laws Unannotated N.Y. <law> § x (LexisNexis <year>)
New York City Civil Court Act (29A) City Civ. Ct. Act
New York City Criminal Court Act (29A) City Crim. Ct. Act
Code of Criminal Procedure (11A) Code Crim. Proc.
Court of Claims Act (29A) Ct. Cl. Act
Family Court Act (29A) Fam. Ct. Act
Uniform City Court Act (29A) Uniform City Ct. Act
Uniform District Court Act (29A) Uniform Dist. Ct. Act
Uniform Justice Court Act (29A) Uniform Just. Ct. Act
Session laws: Cite to official N.Y. Laws, if found there; else, cite to N.Y. Sess. Laws.
Laws of New York <year> N.Y. Laws <page no.>
McKinney's Session Laws of New York (West) (McKinney) <year> N.Y. Sess. Laws <page no.>
New York Consolidated Laws Service <year>-<pamph. no.> N.Y. Consol. Laws Adv.
Advance Legislative Service (LexisNexis) Legis. Serv. <page no.> (LexisNexis)
Administrative compilation
Official Compilation of Codes, Rules & Regulations of the State of New York (West) N.Y. Comp. Codes R. & Regs. tit. x, § x (<year>)
Administrative register
New York State Register <vol. no.> N.Y. Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
North Carolina
Supreme Court (N.C.): Cite to S.E. or S.E.2d.
South Eastern Reporter 1887–date S.E., S.E.2d
North Carolina Reports
63 N.C. to date 1868–date N.C.
Phillips’ Equity 1866–1868 62 N.C. (Phil. Eq.)
Phillips’ Law 1866–1868 61 N.C. (Phil.)
Winston 1863–1864 60 N.C. (Win.)
Jones’ Equity (54–59) 1853–1863 e.g., 54 N.C. (1 Jones Eq.)
Jones’ Law (46–53) 1853–1862 e.g., 46 N.C. (1 Jones)
Busbee’s Equity 1852–1853 45 N.C. (Busb. Eq.)
Busbee’s Law 1852–1853 44 N.C. (Busb.)
Iredell’s Equity (36–43) 1840–1852 e.g., 36 N.C. (1 Ired. Eq.)
Iredell’s Law (23–35) 1840–1852 e.g., 23 N.C. (1 Ired.)
Devereux & Battle’s Equity (21–22) 1834–1839 e.g., 21 N.C. (1 Dev. & Bat. Eq.)
Devereux & Battle’s Law (18–20) 1834–1839 e.g., 20 N.C. (3 & 4 Dev. & Bat.)
Devereux’s Equity (16–17) 1826–1834 e.g., 16 N.C. (1 Dev. Eq.)
Devereux’s Law (12–15) 1826–1834 e.g., 12 N.C. (1 Dev.)
Hawks (8–11) 1820–1826 e.g., 8 N.C. (1 Hawks)
Murphey (5–7) 1804–18131818–1819 e.g., 5 N.C. (1 Mur.)
Taylor’s North Carolina Term Reports 1816–1818 4 N.C. (Taylor)
Carolina Law Repository 1813–1816 4 N.C. (Car. L. Rep.)
Haywood (2–3) 1789–1806 e.g., 2 N.C. (1 Hayw.)
Conference by Cameron & Norwood 1800–1804 1 N.C. (Cam. & Nor.)
Taylor 1798–1802 1 N.C. (Tay.)
Martin 1778–1797 1 N.C. (Mart.)
Court of Appeals (N.C. Ct. App.): Cite to S.E.2d.
South Eastern Reporter 1968–date S.E.2d
North Carolina Court of Appeals Reports 1968–date N.C. App.
Statutory compilations: Cite to N.C. Gen. Stat. (published by LexisNexis).
General Statutes of North Carolina (LexisNexis) N.C. Gen. Stat. § x-x (<year>)
West’s North Carolina General Statutes Annotated N.C. Gen. Stat. Ann. § x-x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to N.C. Sess. Laws.
Session Laws of North Carolina <year> N.C. Sess. Laws <page no.>
North Carolina <year> Advance Legislative Service (LexisNexis) <year>-<pamph. no.> N.C. Adv. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (LexisNexis)
North Carolina Legislative Service (West) <year> N.C. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
North Carolina Administrative Code (West) <tit. no.> N.C. Admin. Code <rule no.> (<year>)
Administrative register
North Carolina Register (LexisNexis) <vol. no.> N.C. Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
North Dakota
Public Domain Citation Format: North Dakota has adopted a public domain citation format for cases after December 31, 1996. See North Dakota Rules of Court, Rule 11.6. The format is:
  • Smith v. Jones, 1997 ND 15
  • Smith v. Jones, 1997 ND 15, 600 N.W.2d 900
  • Smith v. Jones, 1997 ND 15, ¶ 21
  • Smith v. Jones, 1997 ND 15, ¶ 21, 600 N.W.2d 900
Supreme Court (N.D.): Cite to N.W. or N.W.2d.
North Western Reporter 1890–date N.W., N.W.2d
North Dakota Reports 1890–1953 N.D.
Supreme Court of Dakota (Dakota): Cite to N.W..
North Western Reporter 1879–1889 N.W.
Dakota Reports 1867–1889 Dakota
Court of Appeals of North Dakota (N.D. Ct. App.): Cite to N.W.2d.
North Western Reporter 1987–date N.W.2d
Statutory compilations: Cite to N.D. Cent. Code.
North Dakota Century Code (LexisNexis) N.D. Cent. Code § x-x-x (<year>)
West’s North Dakota Century Code Annotated N.D. Cent. Code Ann. § x-x-x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to N.D. Laws.
Laws of North Dakota <year> N.D. Laws <page no.>
North Dakota Century Code <year> Advance Legislative Service (LexisNexis) <year>-<pamph. no.> N.D. Cent. Code Adv. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (LexisNexis)
West’s North Dakota Legislative Service <year> N.D. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
North Dakota Administrative Code N.D. Admin. Code <rule no.> (<year>)
Ohio
Public Domain Citation Format: Ohio has adopted a public domain citation format for cases decided after April 30, 2002. See Supreme Court of Ohio Writing Manual (2d ed. 2013). The format is:
  • Bonacorsi v. Wheeling & Lake Erie Ry. Co., 95 Ohio St.3d 314, 2002-Ohio-2220, 767 N.E.2d 707, ¶ 15
  • Bowling Green v. Godwin, 110 Ohio St.3d 58, 2006-Ohio-3563, 850 N.E.2d 698, ¶ 13, fn. 1
  • Byer v. Wright, 160 Ohio App.3d 472, 2005-Ohio-1797, 827 N.E.2d 835 (11th Dist.)
Supreme Court (Ohio): Cite to N.E., N.E.2d, or N.E.3d.
North Eastern Reporter 1885–date N.E., N.E.2d, N.E.3d
Ohio State Reports 1852–date Ohio St., Ohio St. 2d, Ohio St. 3d
Ohio Reports 1821–1851 Ohio
Wilcox’s Condensed Reports 1821–1831 Wilc. Cond. Rep.
Wright 1831–1834 Wright
Ohio Unreported Cases 1809–1899 Ohio Unrep. Cas.
Court of Appeals (Ohio Ct. App.): Cite to N.E., N.E.2d, or N.E.3d.
North Eastern Reporter 1926–date N.E., N.E.2d, N.E.3d
Ohio Appellate Reports 1913–date Ohio App., Ohio App. 2d, Ohio App. 3d
Ohio Circuit Court Reports 1914–1917 Ohio C.C.
Ohio Courts of Appeals Reports 1916–1922 Ohio Ct. App.
Other law courts: Cite to N.E., N.E.2d, or N.E.3d, if found there; else, cite to another reporter in the following order of preference.
North Eastern Reporter 1926–date N.E., N.E.2d, N.E.3d
Ohio Miscellaneous Reports 1962–2012 Ohio Misc., Ohio Misc. 2d
Ohio Bar Reports 1982–1987 Ohio B.
Ohio Opinions 1934–1982 Ohio Op., Ohio Op. 2d, Ohio Op. 3d
Ohio Law Abstract 1922–1964 Ohio Law Abs.
Ohio Nisi Prius Reports 1903–1934 Ohio N.P., Ohio N.P. (n.s.)
Ohio Decisions 1894–1921 Ohio Dec.
Ohio Decisions, Reprint 1840–1893 Ohio Dec. Reprint
Ohio Circuit Decisions 1885–1923 Ohio Cir. Dec.
Ohio Circuit Court Decisions 1901–1923 e.g., 13-23 Ohio C.C. Dec.
Ohio Circuit Court Reports 1885–1901 Ohio C.C.
Ohio Law Bulletin 1876–1921 Ohio L. Bull.
Ohio Circuit Court Reports, New Series 1903–1917 Ohio C.C. (n.s.)
Ohio Law Reporter 1903–1934 Ohio L.R.
Tappen’s Reports 1816–1819 Tapp. Rep.
Anderson’s Unreported Ohio Appellate Cases 1990 Ohio App. Unrep.
Statutory compilations: Cite to one of the following codes.
Page’s Ohio Revised Code Annotated (LexisNexis) Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § x.x (LexisNexis <year>)
Baldwin’s Ohio Revised Code Annotated (West) Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § x.x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Ohio Laws.
State of Ohio: Legislative Acts Passed and Joint Resolutions Adopted <year> Ohio Laws <page no.>
Page’s Ohio Legislative Bulletin (LexisNexis) <year> Ohio Legis. Bull. <page no.> (LexisNexis)
Baldwin’s Ohio Legislative Service Annotated (West) <year> Ohio Legis. Serv. Ann. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Baldwin's Ohio Administrative Code (West) Ohio Admin. Code <rule no.> (<year>)
Administrative and executive registers: Cite to one of the following registers.
Baldwin's Ohio Monthly Record 1977–date Ohio Monthly Rec. <page no.> (<month year>)
Ohio Government Reports 1965–1976 Ohio Gov’t <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Ohio Department Reports 1914–1964 Ohio Dep’t <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Oklahoma
Public domain citation format: Oklahoma has adopted a public domain citation format for cases after May 1, 1997. See Oklahoma Supreme Court Rule 1.200(f) and Oklahoma Criminal Appeals Rule 3.5(c). The format is:
  • Skinner v. Braum’s Ice Cream Store, 1995 OK 11, 890 P.2d 922
  • Skinner v. Braum’s Ice Cream Store, 1995 OK 11, ¶9, 890 P.2d 922
  • Hunter v. State, 1953 OK CR 155, 97 Okl.Cr. 402, 264 P.2d 997
  • Robinson v. State, 1997 OK CR 24, ¶ 3, 68 OBJ 1379, 1381
Supreme Court (Okla.): Cite to P., P.2d, or P.3d.
Pacific Reporter 1890–date P., P.2d, P.3d
Oklahoma Reports 1890–1953 Okla.
Court of Appeals of Indian Territory (Indian Terr.): Cite to S.W..
South Western Reporter 1896–1907 S.W.
Indian Territory Reports 1896–1907 Indian Terr.
Court of Criminal Appeals (Okla. Crim. App.), before 1959 Criminal Court of Appeals (Okla. Crim. App.): Cite to P., P.2d, or P.3d.
Pacific Reporter 1908–date P., P.2d, P.3d
Oklahoma Criminal Reports 1908–1953 Okla. Crim.
Court of Civil Appeals (Okla. Civ. App.): Cite to P.2d or P.3d.
Pacific Reporter 1971–date P.2d, P.3d
Statutory compilations: Cite to Okla. Stat..
Oklahoma Statutes (West) Okla. Stat. tit. x, § x (<year>)
Oklahoma Statutes Annotated (West) Okla. Stat. Ann. tit. x, § x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Okla. Sess. Laws.
Oklahoma Session Laws (West) <year> Okla. Sess. Laws <page no.>
Oklahoma Session Law Service (West) <year> Okla. Sess. Law Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Oklahoma Administrative Code Okla. Admin. Code § x:x-x-x (<year>)
Administrative registers: Cite to one of the following sources.
Oklahoma Register 1983–date <vol. no.> Okla. Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Oklahoma Gazette 1962–1983 <vol. no.> Okla. Gaz. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Oregon
Supreme Court (Or.): Cite to P., P.2d, or P.3d.
Pacific Reporter 1883–date P., P.2d, P.3d
Oregon Reports 1853–date Or.
Court of Appeals (Or. Ct. App.): Cite to P.2d or P.3d.
Pacific Reporter 1969–date P.2d, P.3d
Oregon Reports, Court of Appeals 1969–date Or. App.
Tax Court (Or. T.C.): Cite to Or. Tax.
Oregon Tax Reports 1962–date Or. Tax
Statutory compilations: Cite to Or. Rev. Stat..
Oregon Revised Statutes Or. Rev. Stat. § x.x (<year>)
West’s Oregon Revised Statutes Annotated Or. Rev. Stat. Ann. § x.x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Or. Laws. When citing statutes repealed during or after 1953, indicate parenthetically the former Or. Rev. Stat. sections.
Oregon Laws and Resolutions <year> Or. Laws <page no.>
<year> Or. Laws Spec. Sess. <page no.>
<year> Or. Laws Adv. Sh. No. x, <page no.>
West’s Oregon Legislative Service <year> Or. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Oregon Administrative Rules Or. Admin. R. <rule no.> (<year>)
Administrative register
Oregon Bulletin <vol. no.> Or. Bull. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Pennsylvania
Supreme Court (Pa.): Cite to A., A.2d, or A.3d.
Atlantic Reporter 1885–date A., A.2d, A.3d
Pennsylvania State Reports 1845–date Pa.
Monaghan 1888–1890 Monag.
Sadler 1885–1889 Sadler
Walker 1855–1885 Walk.
Pennypacker 1881–1884 Pennyp.
Grant 1814–1863 Grant
Watts and Sergeant 1841–1845 Watts & Serg.
Wharton 1835–1841 Whart.
Watts 1832–1840 Watts
Rawle 1828–1835 Rawle
Penrose and Watts 1829–1832 Pen. & W.
Sergeant and Rawle 1814–1828 Serg. & Rawle
Binney 1799–1814 Binn.
Yeates 1791–1808 Yeates
Addison 1791–1799 Add.
Dallas 1754–1806 Dall.
Alden 1754–1814 Ald.
Superior Court (Pa. Super. Ct.): Cite to A., A.2d, or A.3d. For cases decided after December 31, 1998, use the following public domain citation format:
  • Jones v. Smith, 1999 PA Super 1
Atlantic Reporter 1931–date A., A.2d, A.3d
Pennsylvania Superior Court Reports 1895–1997 Pa. Super.
Commonwealth Court (Pa. Commw. Ct.): Cite to A.2d or A.3d.
Atlantic Reporter 1970–date A.2d, A.3d
Pennsylvania Commonwealth Court Reports 1970–1994 Pa. Commw.
Other lower courts: Cite to Pa. D. & C., Pa. D. & C.2d, Pa. D. & C.3d, Pa. D. & C.4th, or Pa. D. & C.5th. Not all lower court decisions are reproduced in the reporters listed below, and it may be necessary, on occasion, to cite to the legal reporter for an individual county, if available. For a comprehensive list of Pennsylvania county court reports, consult chapter seven, appendix four, Frank Y. Liu et al., Pennsylvania Legal Research Handbook (2008).
Pennsylvania District and County Reports 1918–date Pa. D. & C., Pa. D. & C.2d, Pa. D. & C.3d, Pa. D. & C.4th, Pa. D. & C.5th
Pennsylvania District Reports 1892–1921 Pa. D.
Pennsylvania County Court Reports 1870–1921 Pa. C.
Statutory compilations: Cite to Pa. Cons. Stat. (79 titles). These publications should not be confused with Pa. Code, which is a code of regulations, not of legislation.
Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes <tit. no.> Pa. Cons. Stat. § x (<year>)
Purdon’s Pennsylvania Statutes and Consolidated Statutes Annotated (West) <tit. no.> Pa. Stat. and Cons. Stat. Ann. § x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Pa. Laws.
Laws of Pennsylvania <year> Pa. Laws <page no.>
Purdon’s Pennsylvania Legislative Service (West) <year> Pa. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Pennsylvania Code (Fry Communications) <tit. no.> Pa. Code § x.x (<year>)
Administrative register
Pennsylvania Bulletin (Fry Communications) <vol. no.> Pa. Bull. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Rhode Island
Supreme Court (R.I.): Cite to A., A.2d or A.3d.
Atlantic Reporter 1885–date A., A.2d, A.3d
Rhode Island Reports 1828–1980 R.I.
Statutory compilations: Cite to R.I. Gen. Laws.
General Laws of Rhode Island (LexisNexis) <tit. no.> R.I. Gen. Laws § x-x-x (<year>)
West’s General Laws of Rhode Island Annotated <tit. no.> R.I. Gen. Laws Ann. § x-x-x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to R.I. Pub. Laws.
Public Laws of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations <year> R.I. Pub. Laws <page no.>
Acts and Resolves of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations <year> R.I. Acts & Resolves <page no.>
Rhode Island Advance Legislative Service (LexisNexis) <year>-<pamph. no.> R.I. Adv. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (LexisNexis)
West’s Rhode Island Advance Legislative Service <year> R.I. Adv. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Code of Rhode Island Rules (LexisNexis) <tit. no.>-<ch. no.> R.I. Code R. § x (LexisNexis <year>)
Administrative register
Rhode Island Government Register (LexisNexis) <iss. no.> R.I. Gov’t Reg. <page no.> (LexisNexis <month year>)
South Carolina
Supreme Court after 1868 (S.C.): Cite to S.E. or S.E.2d.
South Eastern Reporter 1887–date S.E., S.E.2d
South Carolina Reports 1868–date S.C.
Court of Appeals (S.C. Ct. App.): Cite to S.E.2d.
South Eastern Reporter 1983–date S.E.2d
South Carolina Reports 1983–date S.C.
Courts of law before 1868: Cite to South Carolina Law Reports (S.C.L.)
Richardson (37–49) 1850–1868 e.g., 37 S.C.L. (3 Rich.)
Strobhart (32–36) 1846–1850 e.g., 32 S.C.L. (1 Strob.)
Richardson (30–31) 1844–1846 e.g., 30 S.C.L. (1 Rich.)
Speers (28–29) 1842–1844 e.g., 28 S.C.L. (1 Speers)
McMullan (26–27) 1840–1842 e.g., 26 S.C.L. (1 McMul.)
Cheves 1839–1840 25 S.C.L. (Chev.)
Rice 1838–1839 24 S.C.L. (Rice)
Dudley 1837–1838 23 S.C.L. (Dud.)
Riley 1836–1837 22 S.C.L. (Ril.)
Hill (19–21) 1833–1837 e.g., 19 S.C.L. (1 Hill)
Bailey (17–18) 1828–1832 e.g., 17 S.C.L. (1 Bail.)
Harper 1823–1824 16 S.C.L. (Harp.)
McCord (12–15) 1821–1828 e.g., 12 S.C.L. (1 McCord)
Nott and McCord (10–11) 1817–1820 e.g., 10 S.C.L. (1 Nott & McC.)
Mill (Constitutional) (8–9) 1817–1818 e.g., 8 S.C.L. (1 Mill)
Treadway (6–7) 1812–1816 e.g., 6 S.C.L. (1 Tread.)
Brevard (3–5) 1793–1816 e.g., 3 S.C.L. (1 Brev.)
Bay (1–2) 1783–1804 e.g., 1 S.C.L. (1 Bay)
Courts of equity before 1868: Cite to South Carolina Equity Reports (S.C. Eq.)
Richardson’s Equity (24–35) 1850–1868 e.g., 24 S.C. Eq. (3 Rich. Eq.)
Strobhart’s Equity (20–23) 1846–1850 e.g., 20 S.C. Eq. (1 Strob. Eq.)
Richardson’s Equity (18–19) 1844–1846 e.g., 18 S.C. Eq. (1 Rich. Eq.)
Speers’ Equity 1842–1844 17 S.C. Eq. (Speers Eq.)
McMullan’s Equity 1840–1842 16 S.C. Eq. (McMul. Eq.)
Cheves’ Equity 1839–1840 15 S.C. Eq. (Chev. Eq.)
Rice’s Equity 1838–1839 14 S.C. Eq. (Rice Eq.)
Dudley’s Equity 1837–1838 13 S.C. Eq. (Dud. Eq.)
Riley’s Chancery 1836–1837 12 S.C. Eq. (Ril. Eq.)
Hill’s Chancery (10–11) 1833–1837 e.g., 10 S.C. Eq. (1 Hill Eq.)
Richardson’s Cases 1831–1832 9 S.C. Eq. (Rich. Cas.)
Bailey’s Equity 1830–1831 8 S.C. Eq. (Bail. Eq.)
McCord’s Chancery (6–7) 1825–1827 e.g., 6 S.C. Eq. (1 McCord Eq.)
Harper’s Equity 1824 5 S.C. Eq. (Harp. Eq.)
Desaussure’s Equity (1–4) 1784–1817 e.g., 1 S.C. Eq. (1 Des. Eq.)
Statutory compilation
Code of Laws of South Carolina 1976 Annotated S.C. Code Ann. § x-x-x (<year>)
Session laws
Acts and Joint Resolutions, South Carolina <year> S.C. Acts <page no.>
Administrative compilation: Administrative regulations appear in volumes 1–10 of S.C. Code Ann. This publication should not be confused with the statutory compilation of the same name, which also contains volumes 1–10.
Code of Laws of South Carolina 1976 Annotated:Code of Regulations (West) S.C. Code Ann. Regs. <reg no.> (<year>)
Administrative register
South Carolina State Register <vol. no.> S.C. Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
South Dakota
Public domain citation format: South Dakota has adopted a public domain citation format for cases after December 31, 1996. See South Dakota Rules of Civil Procedure § 15-26A-69.1 and Supreme Court Rule 10-05. The format is:
  • Smith v. Jones, 1996 S.D. 15, 600 N.W. 2d 900
  • Smith v. Jones, 1996 S.D. 15, ¶ 21, 500 N.W.2d 900, 901
Supreme Court (S.D.): Cite to N.W. or N.W.2d.
North Western Reporter 1890–date N.W., N.W.2d
South Dakota Reports 1890–1976 S.D.
Supreme Court of Dakota (Dakota): Cite to N.W..
North Western Reporter 1879–1889 N.W.
Dakota Reports 1867–1889 Dakota
Statutory compilation
South Dakota Codified Laws (West) S.D. Codified Laws § x-x-x (<year>)
Session laws: Cite to S.D. Sess. Laws.
Session Laws of South Dakota <year> S.D. Sess. Laws <ch. x § x> <page no.>
Administrative compilation
Administrative Rules of South Dakota S.D. Admin. R. <rule no.> (<year>)
Administrative register
South Dakota Register <vol. no.> S.D. Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Tennessee
Supreme Court (Tenn.): Cite to S.W., S.W.2d, or S.W.3d.
South Western Reporter 1886–date S.W., S.W.2d, S.W.3d
Tennessee Reports
60 Tenn. to 225 Tenn. 1872–1972 Tenn.
Heiskell 1870–1874 e.g., 48 Tenn. (1 Heisk.)
Coldwell 1860–1870 e.g., 41 Tenn. (1 Cold.)
Head 1858–1860 e.g., 38 Tenn. (1 Head)
Sneed 1853–1858 e.g., 33 Tenn. (1 Sneed)
Swan 1851–1853 e.g., 31 Tenn. (1 Swan)
Humphreys 1839–1851 e.g., 20 Tenn. (1 Hum.)
Meigs 1838–1839 19 Tenn. (Meigs)
Yerger 1818–1837 e.g., 9 Tenn. (1 Yer.)
Martin & Yerger 1825–1828 8 Tenn. (Mart. & Yer.)
Peck 1821–1824 7 Tenn. (Peck)
Haywood 1816–1818 e.g., 4 Tenn. (1 Hayw.)
Cooke 1811–1814 3 Tenn. (Cooke)
Overton 1791–1815 e.g., 1 Tenn. (1 Overt.)
Court of Appeals (Tenn. Ct. App.): Cite to S.W.2d or S.W.3d.
South Western Reporter 1932–date S.W.2d, S.W.3d
Tennessee Appeals Reports 1925–1971 Tenn. App.
Court of Criminal Appeals (Tenn. Crim. App.): Cite to S.W.2d or S.W.3d.
South Western Reporter 1967–date S.W.2d, S.W.3d
Tennessee Criminal Appeals Reports 1967–1971 Tenn. Crim. App.
Statutory compilations: Cite to Tenn. Code Ann. (published by LexisNexis).
Tennessee Code Annotated (LexisNexis) Tenn. Code Ann. § x-x-x (<year>)
West's Tennessee Code Annotated Tenn. Code Ann. § x-x-x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Tenn. Pub. Acts or Tenn. Priv. Acts.
Public Acts of the State of Tennessee <year> Tenn. Pub. Acts <page no.>
Private Acts of the State of Tennessee <year> Tenn. Priv. Acts <page no.>
Tennessee Code Annotated Advance Legislative Service (LexisNexis) <year>-<pamph. no.> Tenn. Code Ann. Adv. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (LexisNexis)
West’s Tennessee Legislative Service <year> Tenn. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Official Compilation Rules & Regulations of the State of Tennessee Tenn. Comp. R. & Regs. <rule no.> (<year>)
Administrative register
Tennessee Administrative Register <vol. no.> Tenn. Admin. Reg. <page no.> (<month year>)
Texas
Supreme Court (Tex.): Cite to S.W., S.W.2d, or S.W.3d.
South Western Reporter 1886–date S.W., S.W.2d, S.W.3d
Texas Reports 1846–1962 Tex.
Synopses of the Decisions of the Supreme Court of Texas Arising from Restraints by Conscript and Other Military Authorities (Robards) 1862–1865 Robards (no vol. number)
Texas Law Review (containing previously unpublished cases from the 1845 term) 1845–1846 65 Tex. L. Rev.
Digest of the Laws of Texas (Dallam’s Opinions) 1840–1844 Dallam (no vol. number)
Texas Supreme Court Journal 1957–date Tex. Sup. Ct. J.
Court of Criminal Appeals (Tex. Crim. App.), previously Court of Appeals (Tex. Ct. App.): Cite to S.W., S.W.2d, or S.W.3d.
South Western Reporter 1892–date S.W., S.W.2d, S.W.3d
Texas Criminal Reports 1892–1962 Tex. Crim.
Texas Court of Appeals Reports 1876–1892 Tex. Ct. App.
Condensed Reports of Decisions in Civil Causes in the Court of Appeals (White & Willson vol. 1) (Willson vols. 2–4) 1876–18831883–1892 White & W. Willson
Commission of Appeals (Tex. Comm’n App.): Cite to S.W. or S.W.2d.
South Western Reporter 1886–1892 S.W.
1918–1945 S.W.2d
Texas Reports 1879–18921918–1945 Tex.
Texas Unreported Cases (Posey) 1879–1884 Posey
Condensed Reports of Decisions in Civil Causes in the Court of Appeals (White & Willson) 1879–1883 White & W.
Officially published opinions of the Commission of Appeals from 1879 to 1892 were adopted by the Supreme Court and should be cited as opinions of the Supreme Court. Opinions of the Commission of Appeals from 1918 to 1945 have a notation from the Supreme Court that usually appears in the final paragraph of the opinion, e.g., “opinion adopted,” “holding approved,” or “judgment adopted.” Commission opinions that were adopted by the Supreme Court should be cited as opinions of the Supreme Court. “Holding approved” and “judgment adopted” opinions are cited by using “holding approved” or “judgm’t adopted.”
Courts of Appeals (Tex. App.), previously Courts of Civil Appeals (Tex. Civ. App.): Cite to S.W., S.W.2d, or S.W.3d.
South Western Reporter 1892–date S.W., S.W.2d, S.W.3d
Texas Civil Appeals Reports 1892–1911 Tex. Civ. App.
For additional information on the history and structure of Texas courts and on local citation rules, the following sources are suggested: Texas Law Review Ass’n, The Greenbook: Texas Rules of Form (12th ed. 2010); Lydia M.V. Brandt, Texas Legal Research (1995); and A Reference Guide to Texas Law and Legal History (Karl T. Gruben & James E. Hambleton eds., 2d ed. 1987).
Statutory compilations: Texas is nearing the completion of a recodification of its laws. Cite to the new subject-matter Tex. Code Ann., if found there; else, cite to Tex. Rev. Civ. Stat. Ann. or to one of the independent codes contained in the series Vernon’s Texas Civil Statutes or Vernon’s Texas Statutes Annotated. Note that the independent codes are not part of the new subject-matter Tex. Code Ann.
Vernon’s Texas Codes Annotated (West) Tex. <Subject> Code Ann. § x (West <year>)
Vernon’s Texas Revised Civil Statutes Annotated (West) Tex. Rev. Civ. Stat. Ann. art. x, § x (West <year>)
Vernon’s Texas Business Corporation Act Annotated (West) Tex. Bus. Corp. Act Ann. art. x (West <year>)
Vernon’s Texas Code of Criminal Procedure Annotated (West) Tex. Code Crim. Proc. Ann. art. x (West <year>)
Vernon’s Texas Insurance Code Annotated (West) Tex. Ins. Code Ann. art. x (West <year>)
Vernon’s Texas Probate Code Annotated (West) Tex. Prob. Code Ann. § x (West <year>)
Agriculture Agric.
Alcoholic Beverage Alco. Bev.
Business and Commerce Bus. & Com.
Business Organizations (effective Jan. 1, 2006) Bus. Orgs.
Civil Practice and Remedies Civ. Prac. & Rem.
Education Educ.
Election Elec.
Estates Est.
Family Fam.
Finance Fin.
Government Gov’t
Health and Safety Health & Safety
Human Resources Hum. Res.
Insurance Ins.
Labor Lab.
Local Government Loc. Gov’t
Natural Resources Nat. Res.
Occupations Occ.
Parks and Wildlife Parks & Wild.
Penal Penal
Property Prop.
Special District Local Laws Spec. Dists.
Tax Tax
Transportation Transp.
Utilities Util.
Water Water
Session laws: Cite to Tex. Gen. Laws.
General and Special Laws of the State of Texas <year> Tex. Gen. Laws <page no.>
Vernon’s Texas Session Law Service (West) <year> Tex. Sess. Law Serv. <page no.> (West)
Laws of the Republic of Texas <year> Repub. Tex. Laws <page no.>
Session laws passed before 1941 must be cited according to the exact title, e.g., Tex. Loc. & Spec. Laws, Tex. Gen. & Spec. Laws, and Tex. Gen. Laws. The Revised Statutes were enacted and published separately in 1879, 1895, 1911, and 1925 and should be cited as <year> Tex. Rev. Civ. Stat. xxx. The Code of Criminal Procedure and Penal Code were enacted and published separately in 1856, 1879, 1895, 1911, and 1925 and should be cited as <year> Tex. Crim. Stat. xxx.
Administrative compilation
Texas Administrative Code (West) <tit. no.> Tex. Admin. Code § x.x (<year>)
Administrative register
Texas Register (LexisNexis) <vol. no.> Tex. Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Utah
Public domain citation format: Utah has adopted a public domain citation format for cases after December 31, 1998. See Utah Supreme Court Standing Order No. 4 (effective Jan. 18, 2000). The format is:
  • Smith v. Jones, 1999 UT 16. (Before publication in Utah Advanced Reports)
  • Smith v. Jones, 1999 UT App 16.
  • Smith v. Jones, 1999 UT 16, 380 Utah Adv. Rep. 24. (Before publication in Pacific Reporter but after publication in Utah Advance Reports)
  • Smith v. Jones, 1999 UT App 16, 380 Utah Adv. Rep. 24.
  • Smith v. Jones, 1999 UT 16, 998 P.2d 250. (After publication in Pacific Reporter)
  • Smith v. Jones, 1999 UT App 16, 998 P.2d 250.
Supreme Court (Utah): Cite to P., P.2d, or P.3d.
Pacific Reporter 1881–date P., P.2d, P.3d
Utah Reports 1873–1974 Utah, Utah 2d
Court of Appeals (Utah Ct. App.): Cite to P.2d or P.3d.
Pacific Reporter 1987–date P.2d, P.3d
Statutory compilations: Cite to one of the following codes.
Utah Code Annotated (LexisNexis) Utah Code Ann. § x-x-x (LexisNexis <year>)
West’s Utah Code Annotated Utah Code Ann. § x-x-x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Utah Laws.
Laws of Utah <year> Utah Laws <page no.>
Utah Code <year> Advance Legislative Service (LexisNexis) <year>-<pamph. no.> Utah Adv. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (LexisNexis)
Utah Legislative Service (West) <year> Utah. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Utah Administrative Code Utah Admin. Code r. x-x-x (<year>)
Administrative register
Utah State Bulletin <iss. no.> Utah Bull. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Vermont
Public domain citation format: Vermont has adopted a public domain citation format for cases after December 31, 2002. See Vt. R. App. P. 28.2. The format is:
  • Smith v. Jones, 2001 VT 1, ¶ 12, 169 Vt. 203, 850 A.2d 421
Supreme Court (Vt.): Cite to A., A.2d or A.3d.
Atlantic Reporter 1885–date A., A.2d, A.3d
Vermont Reports 1826–date Vt.
Aikens 1825–1828 Aik.
Chipman, D. 1789–1824 D. Chip.
Brayton 1815–1819 Brayt.
Tyler 1800–1803 Tyl.
Chipman, N. 1789–1791 N. Chip.
Statutory compilations: Cite to Vt. Stat. Ann. (published by LexisNexis), if found there
Vermont Statutes Annotated (LexisNexis) Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. x, § x (<year>)
West’s Vermont Statutes Annotated Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. x, § x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Vt. Acts & Resolves.
Acts and Resolves of Vermont <year> Vt. Acts & Resolves <page no.>
Vermont <year> Advance Legislative Service(LexisNexis) <year>-<pamph. no.> Vt. Adv. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (LexisNexis)
West’s Vermont Legislative Service <year> Vt. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Code of Vermont Rules (LexisNexis) <tit. no.>-<ch. no.> Vt. Code R. § x (<year>)
Administrative register
Vermont Government Register (LexisNexis) <iss. no.> Vt. Gov’t Reg. <page no.> (LexisNexis <month year>)
Virginia
Supreme Court (Va.), previously Supreme Court of Appeals (Va.): Cite to S.E. or S.E.2d.
South Eastern Reporter 1887–date S.E., S.E.2d
Virginia Reports
75 Va. to date 1880–date Va.
Grattan 1844–1880 e.g., 42 Va. (1 Gratt.)
Robinson 1842–1844 e.g., 40 Va. (1 Rob.)
Leigh 1829–1842 e.g., 28 Va. (1 Leigh)
Randolph 1821–1828 e.g., 22 Va. (1 Rand.)
Gilmer 1820–1821 21 Va. (Gilmer)
Munford 1810–1820 e.g., 15 Va. (1 Munf.)
Hening & Munford 1806–1810 e.g., 11 Va. (1 Hen. & M.)
Call 1779–1825 e.g., 5 Va. (1 Call)
Virginia Cases, Criminal 1789–1826 e.g., 3 Va. (1 Va. Cas.)
Washington 1790–1796 e.g., 1 Va. (1 Wash.)
Court of Appeals (Va. Ct. App.): Cite to S.E.2d.
South Eastern Reporter 1985–date S.E.2d
Virginia Court of Appeals Reports 1985–date Va. App.
Circuit Court (Va. Cir. Ct.): Cite to Va. Cir.
Virginia Circuit Court Opinions 1957–date Va. Cir.
Statutory compilations: Cite to Va. Code Ann. (published by LexisNexis).
Code of Virginia 1950 Annotated (LexisNexis) Va. Code Ann. § x-x (<year>)
West’s Annotated Code of Virginia Va. Code Ann. § x-x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Va. Acts.
Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Virginia <year> Va. Acts <page no.>
Virginia <year> Advance Legislative Service (LexisNexis) <year>-<pamph. no.> Va. Adv. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (LexisNexis)
West’s Virginia Legislative Service <year> Va. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Virginia Administrative Code (West) <tit. no.> Va. Admin. Code § x-x-x (<year>)
Administrative register
Virginia Register of Regulations (LexisNexis) <vol. no.> Va. Reg. Regs. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Washington
Supreme Court (Wash.): Cite to P., P.2d, or P.3d.
Pacific Reporter 1880–date P., P.2d, P.3d
Washington Reports 1889–date Wash., Wash. 2d
Washington Territory Reports 1854–1888 Wash. Terr.
Court of Appeals (Wash. Ct. App.): Cite to P.2d or P.3d.
Pacific Reporter 1969–date P.2d, P.3d
Washington Appellate Reports 1969–date Wash. App.
Statutory compilations: Cite to Wash. Rev. Code.
Revised Code of Washington Wash. Rev. Code § x.x.x (<year>)
West's Revised Code of Washington Annotated Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § x.x.x (West <year>)
Annotated Revised Code of Washington (LexisNexis) Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § x.x.x (LexisNexis <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Wash. Sess. Laws.
Session Laws of Washington <year> Wash. Sess. Laws <page no.>
West’s Washington Legislative Service <year> Wash. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Washington Administrative Code Wash. Admin. Code § x-x-x (<year>)
Administrative register
Washington State Register <iss. no.> Wash. Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
West Virginia
Supreme Court of Appeals (W. Va.): Cite to S.E. or S.E.2d.
South Eastern Reporter 1886–date S.E., S.E.2d
West Virginia Reports 1864–date W. Va.
Statutory compilations: Cite to W. Va. Code.
West Virginia Code W. Va. Code § x-x-x (<year>)
Michie’s West Virginia Code Annotated (LexisNexis) W. Va. Code Ann. § x-x-x (LexisNexis <year>)
West’s Annotated Code of West Virginia W. Va. Code Ann. § x-x-x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to W. Va. Acts.
Acts of the Legislature of West Virginia <year> W. Va. Acts <page no.>
West Virginia <year> Advance Legislative Service (LexisNexis) <year>-<pamph. no.> W. Va. Adv. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (LexisNexis)
West’s West Virginia Legislative Service <year> W. Va. Legis. Serv. <page no.>
Administrative compilation
West Virginia Code of State Rules W. Va. Code R. § x-x-x (<year>)
Administrative register
West Virginia Register <vol. no.> W. Va. Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Wisconsin
Public domain citation format: Wisconsin has adopted a public domain citation format for cases decided after December 31, 1999. See Wisconsin Supreme Court Rule 80. The format is:
  • Smith v. Jones, 2000 WI 14, ¶6
  • Smith v. Jones, 214 Wis. 2d 408, ¶12
  • Doe v. Roe, 2001 WI App 9, ¶17
  • Doe v. Roe, 595 N.W.2d 346, ¶27
Supreme Court (Wis.): Cite to N.W. or N.W.2d.
North Western Reporter 1879–date N.W., N.W.2d
Wisconsin Reports 1853–date Wis., Wis. 2d
Pinney 1839–1852 Pin.
Chandler 1849–1852 Chand.
Burnett 1842–1843 Bur.
Burnett (bound with session laws for Dec. 1841) 1841 Bur.
Court of Appeals (Wis. Ct. App.): Cite to N.W.2d.
North Western Reporter 1978–date N.W.2d
Wisconsin Reports 1978–date Wis. 2d
Statutory compilations: Cite to Wis. Stat..
Wisconsin Statutes Wis. Stat. § x.x (<year>)
West’s Wisconsin Statutes Annotated Wis. Stat. Ann. § x.x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Wis. Sess. Laws.
Wisconsin Session Laws <year> Wis. Sess. Laws <page no.>
West’s Wisconsin Legislative Service <year> Wis. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Wisconsin Administrative Code Wis. Admin. Code <agency abbreviation> § x-x (<year>)
Administrative register
Wisconsin Administrative Register <iss. no.> Wis. Admin. Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Wyoming
Public domain citation format: Wyoming has adopted a public domain citation format for cases decided after December 31, 2003. See Order Amending Citation Format (Aug. 19, 2005). The format is:
  • Doe v. Roe, 2001 WY 12
  • Doe v. Roe, 2001 WY 12, 989 P.2d 1312 (Wyo. 2001)
Supreme Court (Wyo.): Cite to P., P.2d, or P.3d.
Pacific Reporter 1883–date P., P.2d, P.3d
Wyoming Reports 1870–1959 Wyo.
Statutory compilations: Cite to Wyo. Stat. Ann. (published by LexisNexis).
Wyoming Statutes Annotated (LexisNexis) Wyo. Stat. Ann. § x-x-x (<year>)
West’s Wyoming Statutes Annotated Wyo. Stat. Ann. § x-x-x (West <year>)
Session laws: Cite to Wyo. Sess. Laws.
Session Laws of Wyoming <year> Wyo. Sess. Laws <page no.>
West’s Wyoming Legislative Service <year> Wyo. Legis. Serv. <page no.> (West)
Administrative compilation
Code of Wyoming Rules (LexisNexis) <tit. no.>-<ch. no.> Wyo. Code R. § x (LexisNexis <year>)
Administrative register
Wyoming Government Register (LexisNexis) <iss. no.> Wyo. Gov’t Reg. <page no.> (LexisNexis <month year>)
American Samoa
High Court of American Samoa (Am. Samoa): Cite to Am. Samoa, Am. Samoa 2d, or Am. Samoa 3d.
American Samoa Reports 1900–date Am. Samoa, Am. Samoa 2d, Am. Samoa 3d
Statutory compilation
American Samoa Code Annotated Am. Samoa Code Ann. § x (<year>)
Administrative compilation
American Samoa Administrative Code Am. Samoa Admin. Code § x (<year>)
Canal Zone
United States District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana (E.D. La.): This court has jurisdiction over litigation pending as of Apr. 1, 1982, in the United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone. Cite to F. Supp.
Federal Supplement 1982–1983 F. Supp.
United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone (D.C.Z.): This court ceased to exist on Mar. 31, 1982. Cite to F. Supp.
Federal Supplement 1946–1982 F. Supp.
Statutory compilation
Panama Canal Code C.Z. Code tit. x, § x (<year>)
Guam
Supreme Court of Guam (Guam): See Sandra E. Cruze, How To Cite Guam Law, Third Edition, September 2002. For example:
  • Santos v. Carney et. al., 1997 Guam 4; 1997 WL 460435 (Sup. Ct. Guam 1997)
District Court of Guam (D. Guam): Cite to F. Supp., F. Supp. 2d, or F. Supp. 3d.
Federal Supplement 1951–date F. Supp., F. Supp. 2d, F. Supp. 3d
Guam Reports 1955–1980 Guam
Statutory compilation
Guam Code Annotated <tit. no.> Guam Code Ann. § x (<year>)
Session laws
Guam Session Laws Guam Pub. L. <law no.> (<year>)
Administrative compilation
Administrative Rules & Regulations of the Government of Guam <tit. no.> Guam Admin. R. & Regs. § x (<year>)
Navajo Nation
Supreme Court (Navajo), previously Court of Appeals (Navajo): Cite to Navajo Rptr.
Navajo Reporter 1969–date Navajo Rptr.
District Court (Navajo D. Ct.): Cite to Navajo Rptr.
Navajo Reporter 1969–date Navajo Rptr.
Statutory compilation
Navajo Nation Code Annotated (West) Navajo Nation Code Ann. tit. x, § x (<year>)
Northern Mariana Islands
Public domain citation format: The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands has adopted a public domain citation format. See General Order 01-100 (March 13, 2001). The format is:
  • ABC Company vs. XYZ Company, 2001 MP 1 ¶10
Supreme Court (N. Mar. I.): Cite to N. Mar. I.
Northern Mariana Islands Reporter 1989–date N. Mar. I.
District Court for the Northern Mariana Islands, Trial and Appellate Divisions (D. N. Mar. I. and D. N. Mar. I. App. Div.), and Commonwealth Superior Court (N. Mar. I. Commw. Super. Ct.), previously Commonwealth Trial Court (N. Mar. I. Commw. Trial Ct.): Cite to F. Supp., F. Supp. 2d, or F. Supp. 3d.
Federal Supplement 1979–date F. Supp., F. Supp. 2d, F. Supp. 3d
Northern Mariana Islands Commonwealth Reporter 1979–date N. Mar. I. Commw.
Statutory compilation
Northern Mariana Islands Commonwealth Code (LexisNexis) <tit. no.> N. Mar. I. Code § x (<year>)
Session laws
Northern Mariana Islands Session Laws <year> N. Mar. I. Pub. L. <law no.>
Administrative compilation
Northern Mariana Islands Administrative Code <tit. no.> N. Mar. I. Admin. Code § x (<year>)
Administrative register
Northern Mariana Islands Commonwealth Register <vol. no.> N. Mar. I. Reg. <page no.> (<month day, year>)
Oklahoma Native Americans
Tribal Courts, Courts of Indian Offenses (Appellate Division), Courts of Indian Appeals, and Courts of Indian Offenses: Cite to Okla. Trib.
Oklahoma Tribal Court Reports 1979–date Okla. Trib.
Puerto Rico
Public domain citation format: Puerto Rico has adopted a public domain citation format for cases decided after December 31, 1997. The format is:
  • Yumac Home Furniture v. Caguas Lumber Yard, 2015 TSPR 148
Supreme Court (P.R.): Cite to P.R. or P.R. Offic. Trans., if found there; else, cite to P.R. Dec. or P.R. Sent., in that order of preference.
Puerto Rico Reports 1899–1978 P.R.
Official Translations of the Opinions of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico 1978–date P.R. Offic. Trans.
Decisiones de Puerto Rico 1899–date P.R. Dec.
Sentencias del Tribunal Supremo de Puerto Rico 1899–1902 P.R. Sent.
Circuit Court of Appeals (P.R. Cir.): Cite to T.C.A
Decisiones del Tribunal de Circuito de Apelaciones de Puerto Rico 1995–date T.C.A.
Statutory compilation
Laws of Puerto Rico Annotated (LexisNexis) P.R. Laws Ann. tit. x, § x (<year>)
Leyes de Puerto Rico Anotadas (LexisNexis) P.R. Leyes An.tit. x, § x (<year>)
Session laws
Laws of Puerto Rico <year> P.R. Laws <page no.>
Leyes de Puerto Rico (LexisNexis) <year> P.R. Leyes <page no.>
Virgin Islands
All courts: Cite to V.I.
Virgin Islands Reports 1917–date V.I.
Statutory compilation
Virgin Islands Code Annotated (LexisNexis) 1962–date V.I. Code Ann. tit. x, § x-x <year>
Session laws: Cite to V.I. Sess. Laws.
Session Laws of the Virgin Islands <year> V.I. Sess. Laws <page no.>
Virgin Islands Code Annotated Advance <year>-<pamph. no.> V.I. Code Ann. Adv.
Legislative Service (LexisNexis) Legis. Serv. <page no.> (LexisNexis)
Administrative compilation
Code of U.S. Virgin Islands Rules (LexisNexis) <tit. no.>-<ch. no.> V.I. Code R. § x-x (LexisNexis <year>)
Administrative register
Virgin Islands Government Register (LexisNexis) <iss. no.> V.I. Gov’t Reg. <page no.> (LexisNexis <month year>)


T4. Required Abbreviations for Services[edit | edit source]

T4.1. Service Publisher Names[edit | edit source]

Service Publisher Name Abbreviation
Bureau of National Affairs BNA
Commerce Clearing House CCH
Matthew Bender MB
Pike & Fischer P & F
Research Institute of America RIA


T4.2. Service Abbreviations[edit | edit source]

For each looseleaf service title, the appropriate abbreviation is followed by the name of the publisher.

Service Name Abbreviation
Administrative Law Third Series Admin. L.3d (BNA)
Affirmative Action Compliance Manual for Federal Contractors Aff. Action Compl. Man. (BNA)
AIDS Law & Litigation Reporter AIDS L. & Litig. Rep. (Univ. Pub. Group)
All States Tax Guide All St. Tax Guide (RIA)
American Federal Tax Reports, Second Series A.F.T.R.2d (RIA)
American Stock Exchange Guide Am. Stock Ex. Guide (CCH)
Antitrust & Trade Regulation Report Antitrust & Trade Reg. Rep. (BNA)
Aviation Law Reporter Av. L. Rep. (CCH)
  ⇒ bound as Aviation Cases Av. Cas. (CCH)
BNA’s Banking Report Banking Rep. (BNA)
Bankruptcy Court Decisions Bankr. Ct. Dec. (LRP)
Bankruptcy Law Reports Bankr. L. Rep. (CCH)
Benefits Review Board Service Ben. Rev. Bd. Serv. (MB)
BioLaw BioLaw (LexisNexis)
Blue Sky Law Reporter Blue Sky L. Rep. (CCH)
Board of Contract Appeals Decisions—see Contract Appeals Decisions
Business Franchise Guide Bus. Franchise Guide (CCH)
Canadian Commercial Law Guide Can. Com. L. Guide (CCH)
Canadian Tax Reporter Can. Tax Rep. (CCH)
Chemical Regulation Reporter Chem. Reg. Rep. (BNA)
Chicago Board Options Exchange Guide Chicago Bd. Options Ex. Guide (CCH)
Collective Bargaining Negotiations & Contracts Collective Bargaining Negot. & Cont. (BNA)
Collier Bankruptcy Cases, Second Series Collier Bankr. Cas. 2d (MB)
Commodity Futures Law Reporter Comm. Fut. L. Rep. (CCH)
Communications Regulation Commc’ns Reg. (BNA)
Congressional Index Cong. Index (CCH)
Consumer Credit Guide Consumer Cred. Guide (CCH)
Consumer Product Safety Guide Consumer Prod. Safety Guide (CCH)
Contract Appeals Decisions Cont. App. Dec. (CCH)
  ⇒ bound as Board of Contract Appeals Decisions B.C.A. (CCH)
Contracts Cases, Federal—see Government Contracts Reporter
Copyright Law Decisions Copyright L. Dec. (CCH)
Copyright Law Reporter Copyright L. Rep. (CCH)
Cost Accounting Standards Guide Cost Accounting Stand. Guide (CCH)
The Criminal Law Reporter Crim. L. Rep. (BNA)
Daily Labor Report Daily Lab. Rep. (BNA)
Dominion Tax Cases Dominion Tax Cas. (CCH)
EEOC Compliance Manual EEOC Compl. Man. (BNA)
EEOC Compliance Manual EEOC Compl. Man. (CCH)
Employee Benefits Cases Empl. Benefits Cas. (BNA)
Employee Benefits Compliance Coordinator Empl. Coordinator (RIA)
Employment Practices Guide  ⇒ bound as Employment Practices Decisions  ⇒ bound assee also Labor Law Reporter Empl. Prac. Dec. (CCH)
Employment Safety and Health Guide Empl. Safety & Health Guide (CCH)
  ⇒ bound as Occupational Safety and Health Decisions O.S.H. Dec. (CCH)
Employment Testing: Law & Policy Reporter Empl. Testing (Univ. Pub. Am.)
Energy Management & Federal Energy Guidelines Energy Mgmt. (CCH)
Environment Reporter Env’t Rep. (BNA)
  ⇒ bound as Environment Reporter Cases Env’t Rep. Cas. (BNA)
Environmental Law Reporter Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtl. Law Inst.)
Exempt Organizations Reports Exempt Org. Rep. (CCH)
Fair Employment Practice Cases—see Labor Relations Reporter
The Family Law Reporter Fam. L. Rep. (BNA)
Family Law Tax Guide Fam. L. Tax Guide (CCH)
Federal Audit Guides Fed. Audit Guide (CCH)
Federal Banking Law Reporter Fed. Banking L. Rep. (CCH)
Federal Carriers Reports Fed. Carr. Rep. (CCH)
  ⇒ bound as Federal Carriers Cases Fed. Carr. Cas. (CCH)
Federal Contracts Report Fed. Cont. Rep. (BNA)
Federal Election Campaign Financing Guide Fed. Election Camp. Fin. Guide (CCH)
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Reporter Fed. Energy Reg. Comm’n Rep. (CCH)
Federal Estate and Gift Tax Reporter Fed. Est. & Gift Tax Rep. (CCH)
  ⇒ bound as Standard Federal Tax Reporter Stand. Fed. Tax Rep. (CCH)
Federal Excise Tax Reporter Fed. Ex. Tax Rep. (CCH)
Federal Income, Gift and Estate Taxation Fed. Inc. Gift & Est. Tax’n (MB)
Federal Rules Service, Second Series Fed. R. Serv. 2d (West)
Federal Securities Law Reporter Fed. Sec. L. Rep. (CCH)
Federal Tax Coordinator Second Fed. Tax Coordinator 2d (RIA)
Federal Tax Guide Reports Fed. Tax Guide Rep. (CCH)
Fire & Casualty Cases—see Insurance Law Reports
Food Drug Cosmetic Law Reporter Food Drug Cosm. L. Rep. (CCH)
Government Contracts Reporter Gov’t Cont. Rep. (CCH)
  ⇒ bound as Contracts Cases, Federal Cont. Cas. Fed. (CCH)
Government Employee Relations Report Gov’t Empl. Rel. Rep. (BNA)
Housing & Development Reporter Hous. & Dev. Rep. (RIA)
Human Resources Management OSHA Compliance Guide OSHA Comp. Guide (CCH)
Immigration Law Service Immigr. L. Serv. (West)
Insurance Law Reports Ins. L. Rep. (CCH)
  ⇒ bound as Personal and Commercial Liability Personal and Comm. Liab. (CCH)
  ⇒ bound as Life, Health & Accident Insurance Cases 2d Life Health & Accid. Ins. Cas. 2d (CCH)
International Environment Reporter Int’l Env’t Rep. (BNA)
International Trade Reporter Int’l Trade Rep. (BNA)
IRS Positions IRS Pos. (CCH)
Labor Arbitration Awards Lab. Arb. Awards (CCH)
Labor Law Reporter Lab. L. Rep. (CCH)
  ⇒ bound as Labor Cases Lab. Cas. (CCH)
  ⇒ bound as NLRB Decisions NLRB Dec. (CCH)
  see also Employment Practices Guid
Labor Relations Reporter: Lab. Rel. Rep. (BNA)
  ⇒ bound as Fair Employment Practice Cases Fair Empl. Prac. Cas. (BNA)
  ⇒ bound as Labor Arbitration Reports Lab. Arb. Rep. (BNA)
  ⇒ bound as Labor Relations Reference Manual L.R.R.M. (BNA)
  ⇒ bound as Wage and Hour Cases Wage & Hour Cas. (BNA)
ABA/BNA Lawyers’ Manual on Professional Conduct Laws. Man. on Prof. Conduct (ABA/BNA)
Life, Health & Accident Insurance Cases—see Insurance Law Reports
Liquor Control Law Reporter Liquor Cont. L. Rep. (CCH)
Media Law Reporter Media L. Rep. (BNA)
Medical Devices Reporter Med. Devices Rep. (CCH)
Medicare and Medicaid Guide Medicare & Medicaid Guide (CCH)
Mutual Funds Guide Mut. Funds Guide (CCH)
National Reporter on Legal Ethics & Professional Responsibility Nat’l Rep. Legal Ethics (Univ. Pub. Am.)
New York Stock Exchange Guide N.Y.S.E. Guide (CCH)
NLRB Decisions—see Labor Law Reporter
Nuclear Regulation Reporter Nuclear Reg. Rep. (CCH)
Occupational Safety & Health Reporter O.S.H. Rep. (BNA)
  ⇒ bound as Occupational Safety & Health Cases O.S.H. Cas. (BNA)
OFCCP Federal Contract Compliance Manual OFCCP Fed. Cont. Compl. Man. (CCH)
Patent, Trademark & Copyright Journal Pat. Trademark & Copyright J. (BNA)
Pension & Benefits Reporter Pens. & Ben. Rep. (BNA)
Pension Plan Guide Pens. Plan Guide (CCH)
Pension & Profit Sharing Second Pens. & Profit Sharing 2d (RIA)
Product Safety & Liability Reporter Prod. Safety & Liab. Rep. (BNA)
Products Liability Reporter Prod. Liab. Rep. (CCH)
Public Utilities Reports Pub. Util. Rep. (PUR)
School Law Reporter School L. Rep. (Educ. Law Ass’n.)
Search & Seizure Bulletin Search & Seizure Bull. (Quinlan)
SEC Accounting Rules SEC Accounting R. (CCH)
Secured Transactions Guide Secured Transactions Guide (CCH)
Securities and Federal Corporate Law Report Sec. & Fed. Corp. L. Rep. (West)
Securities Regulation & Law Report Sec. Reg. & L. Rep. (BNA)
Shipping Regulation Shipping Reg. (BNA)
Social Security Reporter Soc. Sec. Rep. (CCH)
Standard Federal Tax Reporter Stand. Fed. Tax Rep. (CCH)
  ⇒ bound as U.S. Tax Cases U.S. Tax Cas. (CCH)
State and Local Tax Service St. & Loc. Tax Serv. (RIA)
State and Local Taxes—see All States Tax Guide
State Inheritance, Estate, and Gift Tax Reporter St. Inher., Est. & Gift Tax Rep. (CCH)
State Tax Guide St. Tax Guide (CCH)
State Tax Reporter St. Tax Rep. (CCH)
Tax Court Memorandum Decisions T.C.M. (RIA)
  ⇒ bound as Tax Court Reporter T.C.M. (CCH) [or (RIA)]
Tax Court Reported Decisions Tax Ct. Rep. Dec. (RIA)
Tax Court Reports Tax Ct. Rep. (CCH)
Trade Regulation Reporter Trade Reg. Rep. (CCH)
  ⇒ bound as Trade Cases Trade Cas. (CCH)
Unemployment Insurance Reporter Unempl. Ins. Rep. (CCH)
Uniform Commercial Code Reporting Service Second UCC Rep. Serv. (West)
Union Labor Report Newsletter Union Lab. Rep. Newsl. (BNA)
The United States Law Week U.S.L.W. (BNA—publisher need not be indicated)
The United States Patents Quarterly bound in same name U.S.P.Q. (BNA)
U.S. Tax Cases—see Federal Estate and Gift Tax Reporter and Standard Federal Tax Reporter
U.S. Tax Reporter U.S. Tax Rep. (RIA)
U.S. Tax Treaties Reporter U.S. Tax Treaties Rep. (CCH)
Utilities Law Reports Util. L. Rep. (CCH)
Wage and Hour Cases—see Labor Relations Reporter


T5. Required Abbreviations for Legislative Documents[edit | edit source]

Words not on this list that are more than six letters should not abbreviated if the abbreviation would be ambiguous. All articles and prepositions should be removed from the abbreviated title if the document can be unambiguously identified without the articles and prepositions.

Legislative Document Abbreviation
Annals Annals
Annual Ann.
Assembly[man, woman, member] Assemb.
Bill B.
Committee Comm.
Concurrent Con.
Conference Conf.
Congress[ional] Cong.
Debate Deb.
Delegate Del.
Document[s] Doc.
Executive Exec.
Federal Fed.
House H.
House of Delegates H.D.
House of Representatives H.R.
Joint J.
Legislat[ion, ive] Legis.
Legislature Leg.
Miscellaneous Misc.
Number No.
Order Order
Record Rec.
Register Reg.
Regular Reg.
Report Rep.
Representative Rep.
Resolution Res.
Senate S.
Senator Sen.
Service Serv.
Session Sess.
Special Spec.
Subcommittee Subcomm.


T6. Required Abbreviations for Treaty Sources[edit | edit source]

The dates to the year of the treaties contained in the source, not the years in which the source was published.

Court Name Date Abbreviation
Official U.S. Sources
United States Treaties and Other International Agreements 1950–date <volume> U.S.T. xxx
Statutes at Large (indexed at 64 Stat. B1107) 1778–1949 <volume> Stat. xxx
Treaties and Other International Acts Series 1945–date T.I.A.S. No. x
Treaty Series 1778–1945 T.S. No. x
Executive Agreement Series 1922–1945 E.A.S. No. x
Senate Treaty Document  1981–date S. Treaty Doc. No. x
Senate Executive Documents 1778–1980 S. Exec. Doc. No. x
Intergovernmental Treaty sources
United Nations Treaty Series 1946–date <volume> U.N.T.S. xxx
League of Nations Treaty Series 1920–1945 <volume> L.N.T.S. xxx
Pan-American Treaty Series 1949–date <volume> Pan-Am. T.S. xxx
European Treaty Series 1948–2003 E.T.S. No. xxx
Organization of American States Treaty Series 1970–date O.A.S.T.S. No. xxx
Council of Europe Treaty Series 2004–date C.E.T.S. No. xxx
Unofficial Treaty Sources
U.S. Treaties on LEXIS 1776–date LEXIS xxx
International Legal Materials 1962–date <volume> I.L.M. xxx
Parry’s Consolidated Treaty Series 1648–1919 <volume> Consol. T.S. xxx
Hein’s United States Treaties and Other International Agreements 1984–date Hein’s No. KAV xxxx
Bevans 1776–1949 <volume> Bevans xxx


T7. Required Abbreviations for Arbitral Reporters[edit | edit source]

Court Name Abbreviation
Arbitration Materials Arb. Mat' l
Hague Court Reports, First Series Hague Ct. Rep. (Scott)
Hague Court Reports, Second Series Hague Ct. Rep. 2d (Scott)
International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) Reports ICSID Rep.
International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) Review ICSID Rev.
International Chamber of Commerce Arbitration Int' l Comm. Arb.
International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea Reports of Judgments, Advisory Opinions and Orders ITLOS Rep.
Investment Treaty Arbitration Investment Treaty Cases ITA Inv. Treaty Cases
Permanent Court of Arbitration Case Repository PCA Case Repository
United Nations Reports of International Arbitral Awards R.I.A.A.
World Arbitration Reporter World Arb. Rep. (<issue number>)


T8. Required Abbreviations for Intergovernmental Organizations[edit | edit source]

T8.1. United Nations and League of Nations[edit | edit source]

Category Dates Abbreviation
United Nations Documents
United Nations Documents U.N. Docs.
United Nations Principal Organs
General Assembly GAOR
Security Council SCOR
Economic and Social Council ESCOR
Trusteeship Council TCOR
International Court of Justice (I.C.J.)
Judgments, Advisory Opinions, and Orders 1946–date <year> I.C.J. xx
Pleadings, Oral Arguments, and Documents 1946–date <year> I.C.J. Pleadings xx
Acts and Documents 1946–date <year> I.C.J. Acts & Docs xx
Treaties and international agreements
United Nations Treaty Series 1946–date <year> U.N.T.S. xxx
League of Nations
Permanent Court of International Justice 1920–1945 <year> P.C.I.J. xxx
League of Nations Treaty Series 1920–1945 <year> L.N.T.S. xxx


T8.2. Europe[edit | edit source]

Category Dates Abbreviation
European Union
Courts: Cite cases before the Court of Justice of the European Union (E.C.J.) and the General Court (Ct. of First Instance) to E.C.R.. If not, cite to C.M.L.R., Common Mkt. Rep. (CCH), or CEC (CCH), if found there, in that order. If not, cite to official online sources.
Reports of cases before the Court of Justice 1973–date <year> E.C.R. xxx
Common Market Law Reports 1962–date <year> C.M.L.R. xxx
Common Market Reports 1962–1988 <year> Common Mkt. Rep. (CCH) xxx
European Community Cases 1989–2007 <year> CEC (CCH) xxx
Legislative acts: Cite acts of the European Council and the European Commission to O.J. (the Official Journal of the European Union, formerly the Official Journal of the European Communities). If not, cite to O.J. Spec. Ed.. If not, cite to J.O.. For issues of J.O. before 1967, indicate the issue number. For issues of O.J. and J.O. dating from 1967 and later, indicate the series and issue number.>
Official Journal of the European Union 1973–date <year> O.J. (L <act number>) xxx
Official Journal of the European Community, Special Edition 1952–1972 <year> O.J. Spec. Ed. xxx
Journal Officiel des Communautés Européennes 1958–date <year> J.O. (L <act number>) xxx
Parliamentary documents
European Parliamentary Debates Eur. Parl. Deb. (<debate number>) x
European Parliament Working Session or Session Documents Eur. Parl. Doc. (COM <document number>) x
Parlement Européen Documents de Séance Parl. Eur. Doc. (SEC <document number>) x
European Commission of Human Rights: Cite to Eur. Comm’n H.R. Dec. & Rep., Y.B. Eur. Conv. on H.R., or Eur. H.R. Rep., in that order.
European Commission of Human Rights Collections of Decisions <volume> Eur. Comm’n H.R. Dec. & Rep. xxx
European Human Rights Reports <volume> Eur. H.R. Rep. xxx
Yearbook of the European Convention on Human Rights Y.B. Eur. Conv. on H.R.
European Court of Human Rights:
European Court of Human Rights Reports of Judgments and Decisions xx Eur. Ct. H.R. (<year>)
Yearbook of the European Convention on Human Rights Y.B. Eur. Conv. on H.R.


T8.3. Inter-American and International Tribunal[edit | edit source]

Category Abbreviation
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights Annual Reports Inter-Am. Comm’n H.R.
Inter-American Court of Human Rights: Cite to Series, to Rep. Inter-Am. Ct. H.R., or to official online sources.
A - Judgments and Opinions Inter-Am. Ct. H.R. (ser. A) No. xx
B - Pleadings, Oral Arguments and Documents (Relative to Series A) Inter-Am. Ct. H.R. (ser. B) No. xx, xxx
C - Decisions and Judgments Inter-Am. Ct. H.R. (ser. C) No. xx
D - Pleadings, Oral Arguments and Documents (Relative to Series C) Inter-Am. Ct. H.R. (ser. D) No. xx, xxx
E - Provisional Measures Inter-Am. Ct. H.R. (ser. E) No. xx, xxx
F - Procedural Decisions Inter-Am. Ct. H.R. (ser. F) No. xx, xxx
Annual Reports of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights:>
Complete Opinions: 1970-date Rep. Inter-Am. Ct. H.R. xxx
International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea
International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea Reports of Judgments, Advisory Opinions and Orders: 1956–date ITLOS Rep.


T8.4. Other Intergovernmental Organizations[edit | edit source]

Category Abbreviation
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization CTBTO
Food and Agriculture Organization FAO
Global Environment Facility GEF
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC
International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development IBRD
International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes ICSID
International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO
International Criminal Police Organization INTERPOL
International Development Association IDA
International Finance Corporation IFC
International Fund for Agricultural Development IFAD
International Labour Organization ILO
International Maritime Organization IMO
International Monetary Fund IMF
International Refugee Organization IRO
International Telecommunication Union ITU
International Union for Conservation of Nature IUCN
Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency MIGA
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD
Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons OPCW
United Nations U.N.
United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF
United Nations Development Programme UNDP
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNESCO
United Nations Environment Programme UNEP
United Nations Industrial Development Organization UNIDO
Universal Postal Union UPU
World Bank Group WBG
World Customs Organization WCO
World Health Organization WHO
World Intellectual Property Organization WIPO
World Meteorological Organization WMO
World Tourism Organization UNWTO
World Trade Organization WTO


T9. Required Abbreviations for Court Names[edit | edit source]

Court Name Abbreviation
Administrative Court Admin. Ct.
Admiralty [Court, Division] Adm.
Aldermen’s Court Alder. Ct.
Appeals Court App. Ct.
Appellate Court App. Ct.
Appellate Department App. Dep’t
Appellate Division App. Div.
Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals ASBCA
Bankruptcy Appellate Panel B.A.P.
Bankruptcy [Court, Judge] Bankr.
Board of Contract Appeals B.C.A.
Board of Immigration Appeals B.I.A.
Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences B.P.A.I.
Board of Tax Appeals B.T.A.
Borough Court <Name> Bor. Ct.
Central District C.D.
Chancery [Court, Division] Ch.
Children’s Court Child. Ct.
Circuit Court (old federal) C.C.
Circuit Court (state) Cir. Ct.
Circuit Court of Appeals (federal) Cir.
Circuit Court of Appeals (state) Cir. Ct. App.
City Court <Name> City Ct.
Civil Appeals Civ. App.
Civil Court of Record Civ. Ct. Rec.
Civil District Court Civ. Dist. Ct.
Claims Court Cl. Ct.
Commerce Court Comm. Ct.
Commission Comm’n
Common Pleas C.P. <when appropriate, name county or similar subdivision>
Commonwealth Court Commw. Ct.
Conciliation Court Concil. Ct.
County Court <Name> Cty. Ct.
County Judge’s Court Cty. J. Ct.
Court Ct.
Court of Appeal (English) C.A.
Court of Appeals (federal) Cir.
Court of Appeal[s] (state) Ct. App.
Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces C.A.A.F.
Court of Civil Appeals Civ. App.
Court of Claims Ct. Cl.
Court of Common Pleas Ct. Com. Pl.
Court of Criminal Appeals Crim. App.
Court of Customs and Patent Appeals C.C.P.A.
Court of Customs Appeals Ct. Cust. App.
Court of Errors Ct. Err.
Court of Errors and Appeals Ct. Err. & App.
Court of Federal Claims Fed. Cl.
Court of [General, Special] Sessions Ct. <Gen. or Spec.> Sess.
Court of International Trade Ct. Int’l Trade
Court of Military Appeals C.M.A.
Court of Military Review C.M.R.
Court of Special Appeals Ct. Spec. App.
Court of Veterans Appeals Ct. Vet. App.
Criminal Appeals Crim. App.
Criminal District Court Crim. Dist. Ct.
Customs Court Cust. Ct.
District Court (federal) D.
District Court (state) Dist. Ct.
District Court of Appeal[s] Dist. Ct. App.
Division Div.
Domestic Relations Court Dom. Rel. Ct.
Eastern District E.D.
Emergency Court of Appeals Emer. Ct. App.
Equity [Court, Division] Eq.
Family Court Fam. Ct.
High Court High Ct.
Judicial District Jud. Dist.
Judicial Division Jud. Div.
Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation J.P.M.L.
Justice of the Peace’s Court J.P. Ct.
Juvenile Court Juv. Ct.
Land Court Land Ct.
Law Court Law Ct.
Law Division Law Div.
Magistrate Division Magis. Div.
Magistrate’s Court Magis. Ct.
Middle District M.D.
Municipal Court <Name> Mun. Ct.
Northern District N.D.
Orphans’ Court Orphans’ Ct.
Parish Court <Name> Parish Ct.
Police Justice’s Court Police J. Ct.
Prerogative Court Prerog. Ct.
Probate Court Prob. Ct.
Public Utilities Commission P.U.C.
Real Estate Commission Real Est. Comm’n
Recorder’s Court Rec’s Ct.
Southern District S.D.
Special Court Regional Rail Reorganization Act Reg’l Rail Reorg. Ct.
Superior Court Super. Ct.
Supreme Court (federal) U.S.
Supreme Court (other) Sup. Ct.
Supreme Court, Appellate Division App. Div.
Supreme Court, Appellate Term App. Term
Supreme Court of Errors Sup. Ct. Err.
Supreme Judicial Court Sup. Jud. Ct.
Surrogate’s Court Sur. Ct.
Tax Appeal Court Tax App. Ct.
Tax Court T.C.
Teen Court Teen Ct.
Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals Temp. Emer. Ct. App.
Territor[ial, y] Terr.
Trademark Trial and Appeal Board T.T.A.B.
Traffic Court Traffic Ct.
Tribal Court <Name> Tribal Ct.
Tribunal Trib.
Water Court Water Ct.
Western District W.D.
Workmen’s Compensation Division Workmen’s Comp. Div.
Youth Court Youth Ct.


T10. Required Abbreviations for Titles of Judges and Officials[edit | edit source]

Title Abbreviation
Administrative Law Judge A.L.J.
Arbitrator Arb.
Assembly[man, woman, member] Assemb.
Attorney General Att’y Gen.
Baron B.
Chancellor C.
Chief Baron C.B.
Chief Judge, Chief Justice C.J.
Commissioner Comm’r
Delegate Del.
Honorable Hon.
Judge, Justice J.
Judges, Justices JJ.
Lord Justice L.J.
Magistrate Mag.
Master of the Rolls M.R.
Mediator Med.
Referee Ref.
Representative Rep.
Senator Sen.
Vice Chancellor V.C.


T11. Required Abbreviations for Case Names In Citations[edit | edit source]

Case Name Abbreviation
Academ[ic, y] Acad.
Administrat[ive, ion] Admin.
Administrat[or, rix] Adm’ [r, x]
Advertising Advert. or Adver.
Agricultur[e, al] Agric.
Alliance All.
Alternative Alt.
America[n] Am.
and &
Associate Assoc.
Association Ass’n
Atlantic Atl.
Authority Auth.
Automo[bile, tive] Auto.
Avenue Ave.
Bankruptcy Bankr.
Board Bd.
Broadcast[er, ing] Broad.
Brotherhood Bhd.
Brothers Bros.
Building Bldg.
Business Bus.
Casualty Cas.
Cent[er, re] Ctr.
Central Cent.
Chemical Chem.
Coalition Coal.
College Coll.
Commission Comm’n
Commissioner Comm’r
Committee Comm.
Communication Commc’n
Community Cmty.
Company Co.
Compensation Comp.
Computer Comput.
Condominium Condo.
Congress[ional] Cong.
Consolidated Consol.
Construction Constr.
Continental Cont’l
Cooperative Coop.
Corporat[e, ion] Corp.
Correction[s, al] Corr.
County Cty. or Cnty.
Defen[der, se] Def.
Department Dep’t
Detention Det.
Development Dev.
Digital Dig.
Director Dir.
Discount Disc.
Distribut[or, ing] Distrib.
District Dist.
Division Div.
East[ern] E.
Econom[ic, ical, ics, y] Econ.
Education[al] Educ.
Electr[ic, ical, icity, onic] Elec.
Employee Emp.
Employ[er, ment] Emp’[r, t]
Enforcement Enf’t
Engineer Eng’r
Engineering Eng’g
Enterprise Enter.
Entertainment Entm’t
Environment Env’t
Environmental Envtl.
Equality Equal.
Equipment Equip.
Examiner Exam’r
Exchange Exch.
Executive Exec.
Execut[or, rix] Ex’[r, x]
Explorat[ion, ory] Expl.
Export[er, ation] Exp.
Federal Fed.
Federation Fed’n
Fidelity Fid.
Financ[e, ial, ing] Fin.
Foundation Found.
General Gen.
Global Glob.
Government Gov’t
Group Grp.
Guaranty Guar.
Hospital[ity] Hosp.
Housing Hous.
Import[er, ation] Imp.
Incorporated Inc.
Indemnity Indem.
Independen[ce, t] Indep.
Industr[y, ies, ial] Indus.
Information Info.
Institut[e, ion] Inst.
Insurance Ins.
International Int’l
Investment Inv.
Investor Inv’r
Laboratory Lab.
Liability Liab.
Limited Ltd.
Litigation Litig.
Machine[ry] Mach.
Maintenance Maint.
Management Mgmt.
Manufacturer Mfr.
Manufacturing Mfg.
Maritime Mar.
Market Mkt.
Marketing Mktg.
Mechanic[al] Mech.
Medic[al, ine] Med.
Memorial Mem’l
Merchan[t, dise, dising] Merch.
Metropolitan Metro.
Mortgage Mortg.
Municipal Mun.
Mutual Mut.
National Nat’l
Natural Nat.
North[ern] N.
Northeast[ern] Ne.
Northwest[ern] Nw.
Number No.
Opinion Op.
Organiz[ation, ing] Org.
Pacific Pac.
Parish Par.
Partnership P’ship
Person[al, nel] Pers.
Pharmaceutic[s, al, als] Pharm.
Preserv[e, ation] Pres.
Probat[e, ion] Prob.
Product[ion] Prod.
Professional Prof’l
Property Prop.
Protection Prot.
Public Pub.
Publication Publ’n
Publishing Publ’g
Railroad R.R.
Railway Ry.
Refining Ref.
Regional Reg’l
Rehabilitat[ion, ive] Rehab.
Reproduct[ion, ive] Reprod.
Resource[s] Res.
Restaurant Rest.
Retirement Ret.
Road Rd.
Savings Sav.
School[s] Sch.
Scien[ce, tific] Sci.
Secretary Sec’y
Securit[y, ies] Sec.
Service Serv.
Shareholder S’holder
Social Soc.
Society Soc’y
Solution Sol.
South[ern] S.
Southeast[ern] Se.
Southwest[ern] Sw.
Steamship[s] S.S.
Street St.
Subcommittee Subcomm.
Surety Sur.
System[s] Sys.
Techn[ical, ological, ology] Tech.
Telecommunication Telecomm.
Tele[phone, graph] Tel.
Temporary Temp.
Township Twp.
Transcontinental Transcon.
Transport[ation] Transp.
Trust[ee] Tr.
Turnpike Tpk.
Uniform Unif.
University Univ.
Utility Util.
Village Vill.
West[ern] W.


T12. Required Abbreviations for Geographical Terms[edit | edit source]

T12.1. U.S. States, Cities, and Territories[edit | edit source]

Place Abbreviation
States
Alabama Ala.
Alaska Alaska
Arizona Ariz.
Arkansas Ark.
California Cal.
Colorado Colo.
Connecticut Conn.
Delaware Del.
Florida Fla.
Georgia Ga.
Hawaii Haw.
Idaho Idaho
Illinois Ill.
Indiana Ind.
Iowa Iowa
Kansas Kan.
Kentucky Ky.
Louisiana La.
Maine Me.
Maryland Md.
Massachusetts Mass.
Michigan Mich.
Minnesota Minn.
Mississippi Miss.
Missouri Mo.
Montana Mont.
Nebraska Neb.
Nevada Nev.
New Hampshire N.H.
New Jersey N.J.
New Mexico N.M.
New York N.Y.
North Carolina N.C.
North Dakota N.D.
Ohio Ohio
Oklahoma Okla.
Oregon Or.
Pennsylvania Pa.
Rhode Island R.I.
South Carolina S.C.
South Dakota S.D.
Tennessee Tenn.
Texas Tex.
Utah Utah
Vermont Vt.
Virginia Va.
Washington Wash.
West Virginia W. Va.
Wisconsin Wis.
Wyoming Wyo.
Cities[T12.1 note 1]
Baltimore Balt.
Boston Bos.
Chicago Chi.
Dallas Dall.
District of Columbia D.C.
Houston Hous.
Los Angeles L.A.
New York N.Y.C.
Philadelphia Phila.
Phoenix Phx.
San Francisco S.F.
Territories
American Samoa Am. Sam.
Guam Guam
Northern Mariana Islands N. Mar. I.
Puerto Rico P.R.
Virgin Islands V.I.

Note for Table T12.1[edit | edit source]

  1. Abbreviations for city names may also be composed from state name abbreviations above. For example, “Kansas City” should be shortened to “Kan. City.”


T12.2 Australian States and Canadian Provinces and Territories[edit | edit source]

Place Abbreviation
Australia
Australian Capital Territory Austl. Cap. Terr.
New South Wales N.S.W.
Northern Territory N. Terr.
Queensland Queensl.
South Australia S. Austl.
Tasmania Tas.
Victoria Vict.
Western Australia W. Austl.
Canada
Alberta Alta.
British Columbia B.C.
Manitoba Man.
New Brunswick N.B.
Newfoundland & Labrador Nfld.
Northwest Territories N.W.T.
Nova Scotia N.S.
Nunavut Nun.
Ontario Ont.
Prince Edward Island P.E.I.
Quebec Que.
Saskatchewan Sask.
Yukon Yukon

T12.3 Countries and Regions[edit | edit source]

Place Abbreviation
Afghanistan Afg.
Africa Afr.
Albania Alb.
Algeria Alg.
Andorra Andorra
Angola Angl.
Anguilla Anguilla
Antarctica Antarctica
Antigua & Barbuda Ant. & Barb.
Argentina Arg.
Armenia Arm.
Asia Asia
Australia Austl.
Austria Austria
Azerbaijan Azer.
Bahamas Bah.
Bahrain Bahr.
Bangladesh Bangl.
Barbados Barb.
Belarus Belr.
Belgium Belg.
Belize Belize
Benin Benin
Bermuda Berm.
Bhutan Bhutan
Bolivia Bol.
Bosnia & Herzegovina Bosn. & Herz.
Botswana Bots.
Brazil Braz.
Brunei Brunei
Bulgaria Bulg.
Burkina Faso Burk. Faso
Burundi Burundi
Cambodia Cambodia
Cameroon Cameroon
Canada Can.
Cape Verde Cape Verde
Cayman Islands Cayman Is.
Central African Republic Cent. Afr. Rep.
Chad Chad
Chile Chile
China, People's Republic of China
Colombia Colom.
Comoros Comoros
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Dem. Rep. Congo
Congo, Republic of the Congo
Costa Rica Costa Rica
Côte d'Ivoire Côte d'Ivoire
Croatia Croat.
Cuba Cuba
Cyprus Cyprus
Czech Republic Czech
Denmark Den.
Djibouti Djib.
Dominica Dominica
Dominican Republic Dom. Rep.
Ecuador Ecuador
Egypt Egypt
El Salvador El Sal.
England Eng.
Equatorial Guinea Eq. Guinea
Eritrea Eri.
Estonia Est.
Ethiopia Eth.
Europe Eur.
Falkland Islands Falkland Is.
Fiji Fiji
Finland Fin.
France Fr.
Gabon Gabon
Gambia Gam.
Georgia Geor.
Germany Ger.
Ghana Ghana
Gibraltar Gib.
Great Britain Gr. Brit.
Greece Greece
Greenland Green.
Grenada Gren.
Guadeloupe Guad.
Guatemala Guat.
Guinea Guinea
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau
Guyana Guy.
Haiti Haiti
Honduras Hond.
Hong Kong H.K.
Hungary Hung.
Iceland Ice.
India India
Indonesia Indon.
Iran Iran
Iraq Iraq
Ireland Ir.
Israel Isr.
Italy It.
Jamaica Jam.
Japan Japan
Jordan Jordan
Kazakhstan Kaz.
Kenya Kenya
Kiribati Kiribati
Korea, North N. Kor.
Korea, South S. Kor.
Kosovo Kos.
Kuwait Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan Kyrg.
Laos Laos
Latvia Lat.
Lebanon Leb.
Lesotho Lesotho
Liberia Liber.
Libya Libya
Liechtenstein Liech.
Lithuania Lith.
Luxembourg Lux.
Macau Mac.
Macedonia Maced.
Madagascar Madag.
Malawi Malawi
Malaysia Malay.
Maldives Maldives
Mali Mali
Malta Malta
Marshall Islands Marsh. Is.
Martinique Mart.
Mauritania Mauritania
Mauritius Mauritius
Mexico Mex.
Micronesia Micr.
Moldova Mold.
Monaco Monaco
Mongolia Mong.
Montenegro Montenegro
Montserrat Montserrat
Morocco Morocco
Mozambique Mozam.
Myanmar Myan.
Namibia Namib.
Nauru Nauru
Nepal Nepal
Netherlands Neth.
New Zealand N.Z.
Nicaragua Nicar.
Niger Niger
Nigeria Nigeria
North America N. Am.
Northern Ireland N. Ir.
Norway Nor.
Oman Oman
Pakistan Pak.
Palau Palau
Panama Pan.
Papua New Guinea Papua N.G.
Paraguay Para.
Peru Peru
Philippines Phil.
Pitcairn Island Pitcairn Is.
Poland Pol.
Portugal Port.
Qatar Qatar
Réunion Réunion
Romania Rom.
Russia Russ.
Rwanda Rwanda
Saint Helena St. Helena
Saint Kitts & Nevis St. Kitts & Nevis
Saint Lucia St. Lucia
Saint Vincent & the Grenadines St. Vincent
Samoa Samoa
San Marino San Marino
São Tomé & Príncipe São Tomé & Príncipe
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia
Scotland Scot.
Senegal Sen.
Serbia Serb.
Seychelles Sey.
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone
Singapore Sing.
Slovakia Slovk.
Slovenia Slovn.
Solomon Islands Solom. Is.
Somalia Som.
South Africa S. Afr.
South America S. Am.
Spain Spain
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka
Sudan Sudan
Suriname Surin.
Swaziland Swaz.
Sweden Swed.
Switzerland Switz.
Syria Syria
Taiwan Taiwan
Tajikistan Taj.
Tanzania Tanz.
Thailand Thai.
Timor-Leste (East Timor) Timor-Leste
Togo Togo
Tonga Tonga
Trinidad & Tobago Trin. & Tobago
Tunisia Tunis.
Turkey Turk.
Turkmenistan Turkm.
Turks & Caicos Islands Turks & Caicos Is.
Tuvalu Tuvalu
Uganda Uganda
Ukraine Ukr.
United Arab Emirates U.A.E.
United Kingdom U.K.
United States of America U.S.
Uruguay Uru.
Uzbekistan Uzb.
Vanuatu Vanuatu
Vatican City Vatican
Venezuela Venez.
Vietnam Viet.
Virgin Islands, British Virgin Is.
Wales Wales
Yemen Yemen
Zambia Zam.
Zimbabwe Zim.


T13. Required Abbreviations for Document Subdivisions[edit | edit source]

Document Subdivision Abbreviation
addendum add.
amendment amend.
annotation annot.
appendi[x, ces] app., apps.
article art.
bibliography bibliog.
book bk.
chapter ch.
clause cl.
column col.
comment[ary] cmt.
decision dec.
department dept.
division div.
example ex.
figure[T13 note 1] fig.
folio fol.
footnote[s] in cross-references note, notes
footnote[s] in other references[T13 note 2] n., nn.
historical note[s][T13 note 3] hist. n., hist. nn.
hypothetical hypo.
illustration[s] illus.
introduction intro.
line[s] l., ll.
number no.
page[s] in cross-references p., pp.
page[s] in other references [at]
paragraph[s] ¶, ¶¶
paragraph[s] if symbol appears in source para., paras.
part pt.
preamble pmbl.
principle princ.
publication pub.
rule r.
schedule sched.
section[s] in amending act sec., secs.
section[s] in all other contexts §, §§
series, serial ser.
subdivision subdiv.
subsection subsec.
supplement supp.
table[T13 note 4] tbl.
title tit.
volume vol.

Notes for Table T13[edit | edit source]

  1. For figures, do not add a space between the abbreviation and the number of letter. For example, “fig.4”
  2. For footnotes, do not add a space between the abbreviation and the number of letter. For example, “n.4”
  3. For historical notes, do not add a space between the abbreviation and the number or letter. For example, “hist. n.4”
  4. For tables, do not add a space between the abbreviation and the number of letter. For example, “tbl.4”


T14. Required Abbreviations for Explanatory Phrases[edit | edit source]

If a phrase is followed by a case name as the direct object, the comma should be omitted.

Abbreviated Phrase
acq.
acq. in result
aff’d,
aff’d by an equally divided court,
aff’d mem.,
aff’d on other grounds,
aff’d on reh’g,
aff’g
amended by
appeal denied,
appeal dismissed,
appeal docketed,
appeal filed,
argued,
cert, denied,
cert, dismissed,
cert, granted,
certifying questions to
denying cert, to
dismissing appeal from
enforced,
enforcing
invalidated by
mandamus denied,
modified,
modifying
nonacq.
overruled by
perm. app. denied,
perm. app. granted,
petition for cert, filed,
prob. juris, noted,
reh’g granted [denied],
rev’d,
rev’d on other grounds,
rev’d per curiam,
rev’g
vacated,
vacating as moot
withdrawn,


T15. Required Abbreviations for Institutions[edit | edit source]

Institution Name Abbreviation
Adelaide Adel.
Air Force A.F.
Albany Alb.
American Bar Association (ABA) A.B.A.
American Intellectual Property Law Association AIPLA
American Law Institute A.L.I.
[Journal of the] American Medical Association [J]AMA
American Society of Composers, Authors, & Publishers ASCAP
American University Am. U.
Boston College B.C.
Boston University B.U.
Brigham Young University BYU
Brooklyn Brook.
Buffalo Buff.
California (California Law Review only) Calif.
Capital Cap.
Chapman Chap.
Chartered Life Underwriters C.L.U.
Cincinnati Cin.
City University of New York CUNY
Cleveland Clev.
Columbia Colum.
Cumberland Cumb.
Denver Denv.
Detroit Det.
Dickinson Dick.
Duquesne Duq.
East[ern] E.
Foreign Broadcast Information Service F.B.I.S.
George Mason Geo. Mason
George Washington Geo. Wash.
Georgetown Geo.
Gonzaga Gonz.
Harvard Harv.
Howard How.
John Marshall J. Marshall
Judge Advocate General['s] JAG
Las Vegas L.V.
Lawyer's Reports Annotated L.R.A.
Loyola Loy.
Marquette Marq.
Melbourne Melb.
Memphis Mem.
New England New Eng.
New York University [School of Law] N.Y.U.
North[ern] N.
Northeast[ern] Ne.
Northwest[ern] Nw.
Pepperdine Pepp.
Pittsburgh Pitt.
Richmond Rich.
Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Institute Rocky Mtn. Min. L. Inst.
Saint Louis St. Louis
San Fernando Valley San Fern. V.
Southeast[ern] Se.
South[ern] S.
Southern Methodist University SMU
Southwest[ern] Sw.
Stanford Stan.
Temple Temp.
Thomas Jefferson T. Jefferson
Thomas M. Cooley T.M. Cooley
Thurgood Marshall T. Marshall
Toledo Tol.
Tulane Tul.
Universidad de Puerto Rico U. P.R.
University of California U.C.
University of California - Los Angeles UCLA
University of Missouri Kansas City UMKC
University of the District of Columbia, David A. Clarke School of Law UDC/DCSL
University of West Los Angeles UWLA
Valparaiso Val.
Vanderbilt Vand.
Villanova Vill.
Washington & Lee Wash. & Lee
West[ern] W.
William & Mary Wm. & Mary
William Mitchell Wm. Mitchell


T16. Required Abbreviations for Publishing Terms[edit | edit source]

Publishing Term Abbreviation
abridge[d, ment] abr.
annotated ann.
anonymous anon.
circa c.
compil[ation, ed] comp.
copyright copy.
draft drft.
edit[ion, or] ed.
manuscript ms.
mimeograph mimeo.
new series n.s.
no date n.d.
no place n.p.
no publisher n. pub.
offprint offprt.
old series o.s.
permanent perm.
photoduplicated reprint photo. reprint
printing prtg.
replacement repl.
reprint reprt.
revis[ed, ion] rev.
special spec.
temporary temp.
tentative tent.
translat[ion, or] trans.
unabridged unabr.
volume vol.


T17. Required Abbreviations for Month Names[edit | edit source]

Month Name Abbreviation
January Jan.
February Feb.
March Mar.
April Apr.
May May
June June
July July
August Aug.
September Sept.
October Oct.
November Nov.
December Dec.

T18. Required Abbreviations for Common Words Used In Periodical Names[edit | edit source]

The following guidelines are used for abbreviating periodical names:

  1. Use the title of the periodical on the issue you are citing, even if the name of the periodical has changed.
  2. Use the abbreviations for common institutional names as listed in Table T15 if the name is listed.
  3. If the institutional name is not listed in Table T15, use abbreviations as listed in Table T18 and Table T12.
  4. If the word is not found in Table T18 or Table T12, do not abbreviate the word in the abbreviated title.
  5. Do not use the words “a,” “at,” “in,” “of,” and “the” in the abbreviated title, but do use the word “on.”
  6. If the title consists of “a,” “at,” “in,” “of,” or “the” followed by a single word, do not abbreviate the remaining word.
  7. If the periodical title has an abbreviation in it, use the abbreviation.
  8. Omit all commas in abbreviated titles, but retain other punctuation.
  9. If a periodical title has a colon followed by words, omit all that from the abbreviated title.
  10. If a periodical has been renumbered into a new series, indicate that by prefacing the series number with “(n.s.)”.
  11. If there is an online supplement to a print publication, use the proper abbreviation for the print publication, followed by the name of the online supplement.
Institution Name Abbreviation
Academ[ic, y] Acad.
Account[ant, ants, ing, ancy] Acct.
Administrat[ive, or, ion] Admin.
Advertising Advert.
Advoca[te, cy] Advoc.
Affairs Aff.
Africa[n] Afr.
Agricultur[e, al] Agric.
Amendment Amend.
America[n, s] Am.
Ancestry Anc.
and &
Annual Ann.
Appellate App.
Arbitrat[ion, or, ors] Arb.
Association Ass’n
Attorney Att’y
Bankruptcy Bankr.
Bar B.
Behavior[al] Behav.
British Brit.
Bulletin Bull.
Business Bus.
Capital Cap.
Catholic Cath.
Cent[er, re] Ctr.
Central Cent.
Children[’s] Child.
Chronicle Chron.
Circuit Cir.
Civil Civ.
Civil Libert[y, ies] C.L.
Civil Rights C.R.
College C.
Commentary Comment.
Commerc[e, ial] Com.
Communication[s] Comm.
Comparative Comp.
Conference Conf.
Congressional Cong.
Constitution[al] Const.
Contemporary Contemp.
Contract[s] Cont.
Conveyancer Conv.
Corporat[e, ion] Corp.
Cosmetic Cosm.
Counsel[or, ors, or’s] Couns.
Court Ct.
Courts Cts.
Criminal Crim.
Defense Def.
Delinquency Delinq.
Department Dep’t
Derecho Der.
Development[s] Dev.
Digest Dig.
Diplomacy Dipl.
Dispute Disp.
Doctor Dr.
East[ern] E.
Econom[ic, ics, ical, y] Econ.
Education[al] Educ.
Employ[ee, ment] Emp.
English Eng.
Entertainment Ent.
Environment Env’t
Environmental Envtl.
Estate[s] Est.
Europe[an] Eur.
Faculty Fac.
Family Fam.
Federal Fed.
Federation Fed’n
Financ[e, ial] Fin.
Fortnightly Fort.
Forum F.
Foundation[s] Found.
General Gen.
Government Gov’t
Hispanic Hisp.
Histor[ical, y] Hist.
Hospital Hosp.
Human Hum.
Humanit[y, ies] Human.
Immigration Immigr.
Independent Indep.
Industrial Indus.
Inequality Ineq.
Information Info.
Injury Inj.
Institute Inst.
Insurance Ins.
Intellectual Intell.
Interdisciplinary Interdisc.
Interest Int.
International Int’l
Invest[ments, ors] Inv.
Journal J.
Judicial Jud.
Juridical Jurid.
Jurisprudence Juris.
Justice Just.
Juvenile Juv.
Labor Lab.
Law L.
Law (first word) Law
Lawyer[s, s’, ’s] Law.
Legislat[ion, ive] Legis.
Librar[y, ian, ies] Libr.
Litigation Litig.
Local Loc.
Magazine Mag.
Management Mgmt.
Maritime Mar.
Market Mkt.
Matrimonial Matrim.
Medic[al, ine] Med.
Military Mil.
Mineral Min.
Modern Mod.
Municipal Mun.
National Nat’l
Nationality Nat’lity
Natural Nat.
Negligence Negl.
Negotiation Negot.
New Series n.s.
Newsletter Newsl.
Office Off.
Order Ord.
Organization Org.
Pacific Pac.
Patent Pat.
Personal Pers.
Perpsective[s] Persp.
Philosoph[ical, y] Phil.
Planning Plan.
Policy Pol’y
Politic[al, s] Pol.
Practi[cal, ce, tioner(s)] Prac.
Private Priv.
Probat[e, ion] Prob.
Problems Probs.
Proce[edings, dure] Proc.
Products Liability Prod. Liab.
Profession[al] Prof.
Property Prop.
Psycholog[ical, y] Psychol.
Public Pub.
Publishing Pub.
Puertorriqueño P.R.
Quarterly Q.
Record Rec.
Referee[s] Ref.
Register Reg.
Regulat[ion, ory] Reg.
Relations Rel.
Report[s, er] Rep.
Reproduct[ion, ive] Reprod.
Research Res.
Reserve Res.
Resolution Resol.
Responsibility Resp.
Review Rev.
Revista Rev.
Rights Rts.
School Sch.
Scien[ce, ces, tific] Sci.
Scottish Scot.
Section Sec.
Securities Sec.
Sentencing Sent’g
Service Serv.
Social Soc.
Society Soc’y
Sociolog[ical, y] Soc.
Solicitor[s, s’, ’s] Solic.
State St.
Statistic[s, al] Stat.
Studies Stud.
Supreme Court Sup. Ct.
Survey Surv.
Symposium Symp.
System Sys.
Taxation Tax’n
Teacher Tchr.
Techn[ique, ology] Tech.
Telecommunication[s] Telecomm.
Transnational Transnat’l
Transportation Transp.
Tribune Trib.
Trust[ee, s] Tr.
Uniform Commercial Code UCC
United States U.S.
Universit[ies, y] U.
Urban Urb.
Utilit[ies, y] Util.
Week Wk.
Weekly Wkly.
Yearbook (or Year Book) Y.B.

T19. Table of Citation Guides[edit | edit source]

The 20th edition of The Bluebook is 560 pages. Pages 307–490 are devoted to Table 2, which is named “Foreign Jurisdictions.” While The Bluebook does an admirable, although some might argue overly specific, job of discussing the citation of U.S. legal materials, Table 2 breezes through 43 foreign jurisdictions at a breathtakingly rapid pace. The authoritativeness and care found in the rest of The Bluebook is perhaps not possible when attempting to summarize, for example, the legal system of France in 5 pages. As such, we attempt in this table to direct the reader to a series of other citation guides that are readily available for further guidance.

T19.1. General Legal Citation Guides[edit | edit source]

  1. New York University School of Law, Guide to Foreign and International Legal Citations, First Edition (2006). (Superseded by Second Edition)
  2. Cardiff University, Cardiff Index to Legal Abbreviations, (2011).
  3. University of Chicago Law Review, The Maroonbook: The University of Chicago Manual of Legal Citation, (2016).
  4. Peter W. Martin, Introduction to Basic Legal Citation, (2015).
  5. University of Washington School of Law, Acronyms & Abbreviations, (2015).
  6. Washington University in St. Louis Global Studies Law Review, International Citation Manual.
  7. American Association of Law Libraries, AALL Universal Citation Guide, Edition 2.1, (2008) (Superseded by Edition 3.0)


T19.2. Country-Specific Citation Guides[edit | edit source]

  1. New Zealand Law Foundation, New Zealand Law Style Guide, 3rd Edition, (2018).
  2. Faulty of Law, University of Oxford, Oxford University Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities, (2006).
  3. SILC, Standard Indian Legal Citation, (2014).
  4. University of Melbourne, Australian Guide to Legal Citation, Third Edition (2010).


T19.3. State and Jursisdiction-Specific Legal Citation Guides[edit | edit source]

  1. Arkansas Reporter of Decisions, House Style Guide, (2010).
  2. Edward W. Jessen, California Style Manual, 4th Edition, (2000).
  3. Office of the Reporter of Judicial Decisions, The Manual of Style for the Connecticut Courts (Third Edition), (2013).
  4. Superior Court of Delaware, Guide to the Delaware Rules of Legal Citation (Second Edition), (2004).
  5. Supreme Court of Illinois, Style Manual for the SUpreme and Appellate Courts of Illinois, Fourth Edition (2012).
  6. Massachusetts Reports, Style Manual Prepared by the Office of the Reporter of Decisions, 2015–2016.
  7. Supreme Court of New Jersey, New Jersey Manual on Style for Judicial Opinions, (2017).
  8. Law Reporting Bureau of the State of New York, New York Official Reports Style Manual, (2015).
  9. U.S. Army Court of Criminal Appeals, Citation Guide, Eighth Edition, (2019).
  10. District of Columbia Court of Appeals, Citation and Style Guide, (2009).
  11. Department of Justice, United States Department of Justice, Office of the Solicitor General Citation Manual, (2014).


T20. Tables of Correspondence[edit | edit source]

The material in this section was originally prepared by Patrick Durusau.


Forward Lookup[edit | edit source]

The Indigo Book The Bluebook®
R1. Two Types of Legal Documents B1, R1
R2. Typeface Standards B2, R2
R3. In-Text Citations B1, R1
R4. Signals B1.2, R1.2
R5. Capitalization Rules B8, R8
R6. Signals for Supporting Authority B1.2, R1.2
R7. Signals for Comparison B1.2, R1.2(b)
R8. Signals for Contradictory Authority B1.2, R1.2(c)
R9. Signals for Background Material B1.2, R1.2(d)
R10. Order of Authorities Within Each Signal / Strength of Authority B1.2, R1.4
Cases B10, R10
R11. Full citation B10.1
R12. Court & Year B10.1.3, R10.4, R10.5
R13. Weight of Authority and Explanatory Parenthetical B10.1.5, R10.6.1
R14. History of the Case B10.1.6, R10.7
R15. Short Form Citation for Cases B10.2, R10.9
Statutes, Rules, Regulations, and Other Legislative & Administrative Materials R12, R13, R14
R16. Federal Statutes B12.1.1, R12
R17. State Statutes B12.1.2, R12
R18. Rules of Procedure and Evidence, Restatements, and Uniform Acts B12.1.3, R12.9.3, R12.9.4
R19. Administrative Rules and Regulations B14, R14
R20. Federal Taxation Materials B12.1.4, R12.9.1
R21. Legislative Materials B13, R13
R22. Short Form Citation of Legislative and Administrative Materials R13.8
R23. Sources and Authorities: Constitutions B11, R11
Court & Litigation Documents R10.8.3
R24. Citing Court or Litigation Documents from Your Case R10.8.3
R25. Citing Court or Litigation Documents from Another Case R10.8.3
R26. Short Form Citation for Court Documents B4, R4
R27. Capitalization Within the Text of Court Documents and Legal Memoranda B8, R8
Books & Non-Periodicals B15, R15
R28. Full Citation for Books & Non-Periodicals B15.1
R29. Short Form Citation for Books & Non-Periodicals B15.2
Journals, Magazines, & Newspaper Articles R16
R30. Full Citation for Journals, Magazines & Newspaper Articles B16.1
R31. Short Form Citation for Journals, Magazines & Newspaper Articles B16.2
Internet Sources B18, R18
R32. General Principles for Internet Sources R18.2.1
R33. Basic Formula for Internet Sources B18.1.1, R18.1
R34. Short Form Citations for Internet Sources B18.2
Explanatory Parentheticals R12.8
R35. General Principles for Explanatory Parentheticals B1.3
R36. Order of parentheticals R1.5(b)
Quotations B5, R5
R37. General Principles for Quotations B5.1
R38. Alterations of Quotations R5.2
R39. Omissions in Quotations R5.3
R40. Special Rules for Block Quotations B5.2
Tables
T1. Federal Judicial and Legislative Materials T1.1
T2. Federal Administrative and Legislative Materials T1.2
T3. U.S. States and Other Jurisdictions T1.3
T4. Required Abbreviations for Services T15
T4.1. Service Publisher Names T15
T4.2. Service Abbreviations T15
T5. Required Abbreviations for Legislative Documents T9
T6. Required Abbreviations for Treaty Sources T4
T7. Required Abbreviations for Arbitral Reporters T5
T8. Required Abbreviations for Intergovernmental Organizations T3
T8.1. United Nations and League of Nations T3.1, T3.2
T8.2. Europe T3.3, T3.4, T3.5
T8.3. Inter-American and International Tribunal T3.6, T3.7, T3.8
T8.4. Other Intergovernmental Organizations T3.9
T9. Required Abbreviations for Court Names T7
T10. Required Abbreviations for Titles of Judges and Officials T11
T11. Required Abbreviations for Case Names In Citations T6
T12. Required Abbreviations for Geographical Terms T10
T12.1 U.S. States, Cities, and Territories T10.1
T12.2 Australian States and Canadian Provinces and Territories T10.2
T12.3 Countries and Regions T10.3
T13. Required Abbreviations for Document Subdivisions T16
T14. Required Abbreviations for Explanatory Phrases T8
T15. Required Abbreviations for Institutions T13.1
T16. Required Abbreviations for Publishing Terms T14
T17. Required Abbreviations for Month Names T12
T18. Required Abbreviations for Common Words Used In Periodical Names T13, T13.2
T19. Table of Citation Guides T2


Reverse Lookup[edit | edit source]

The Bluebook® The Indigo Book
B1, R1 R1. Two Types of Legal Documents
B2, R2 R2. Typeface Standards
B1, R1 R3. In-Text Citations
B1.2, R1.2 R4. Signals
B8, R8 R5. Capitalization Rules
B1.2, R1.2 R6. Signals for Supporting Authority
B1.2, R1.2(b) R7. Signals for Comparison
B1.2, R1.2(c) R8. Signals for Contradictory Authority
B1.2, R1.2(d) R9. Signals for Background Material
B1.2, R1.4 R10. Order of Authorities Within Each Signal / Strength of Authority
B10, R10 Cases
B10.1 R11. Full citation
B10.1.3, R10.4, R10.5 R12. Court & Year
B10.1.5, R10.6.1 R13. Weight of Authority and Explanatory Parenthetical
B10.1.6, R10.7 R14. History of the Case
B10.2, R10.9 R15. Short Form Citation for Cases
R12, R13, R14 Statutes, Rules, Regulations, and Other Legislative & Administrative Materials
B12.1.1, R12 R16. Federal Statutes
B12.1.2, R12 R17. State Statutes
B12.1.3, R12.9.3, R12.9.4 R18. Rules of Procedure and Evidence, Restatements, and Uniform Acts
B14, R14 R19. Administrative Rules and Regulations
B12.1.4, R12.9.1 R20. Federal Taxation Materials
B13, R13 R21. Legislative Materials
R13.8 R22. Short Form Citation of Legislative and Administrative Materials
B11, R11 R23. Sources and Authorities: Constitutions
R10.8.3 Court & Litigation Documents
R10.8.3 R24. Citing Court or Litigation Documents from Your Case
R10.8.3 R25. Citing Court or Litigation Documents from Another Case
B4, R4 R26. Short Form Citation for Court Documents
B8, R8 R27. Capitalization Within the Text of Court Documents and Legal Memoranda
B15, R15 Books & Non-Periodicals
B15.1 R28. Full Citation for Books & Non-Periodicals
B15.2 R29. Short Form Citation for Books & Non-Periodicals
R16 Journals, Magazines, & Newspaper Articles
B16.1 R30. Full Citation for Journals, Magazines & Newspaper Articles
B16.2 R31. Short Form Citation for Journals, Magazines & Newspaper Articles
B18, R18 Internet Sources
R18.2.1 R32. General Principles for Internet Sources
B18.1.1, R18.1 R33. Basic Formula for Internet Sources
B18.2 R34. Short Form Citations for Internet Sources
R12.8 Explanatory Parentheticals
B1.3 R35. General Principles for Explanatory Parentheticals
R1.5(b) R36. Order of parentheticals
B5, R5 Quotations
B5.1 R37. General Principles for Quotations
R5.2 R38. Alterations of Quotations
R5.3 R39. Omissions in Quotations
B5.2 R40. Special Rules for Block Quotations
Tables
T1 Federal Jurisdictions
T1.1 T1. Federal Judicial and Legislative Materials
T1.2 T2. Federal Administrative and Legislative Materials
T1.3 T3. U.S. States and Other Jurisdictions
T2 T19. Table of Citation Guides
T3 T8. Required Abbreviations for Intergovernmental Organizations
T3.1, T3.2 T8.1. United Nations and League of Nations
T3.3, T3.4, T3.5 T8.2. Europe
T3.6, T3.7, T3.8 T8.3. Inter-American and International Tribunal
T3.9 T8.4. Other Intergovernmental Organizations
T4 T6. Required Abbreviations for Treaty Sources
T5 T7. Required Abbreviations for Arbitral Reporters
T6 T11. Required Abbreviations for Case Names In Citations
T7 T9. Required Abbreviations for Court Names
T8 T14. Required Abbreviations for Explanatory Phrases
T9 T5. Required Abbreviations for Legislative Documents
T10 T12. Required Abbreviations for Geographical Terms
T10.1 T12.1 U.S. States, Cities, and Territories
T10.2 T12.2 Australian States and Canadian Provinces and Territories
T10.3 T12.3 Countries and Regions
T11 T10. Required Abbreviations for Titles of Judges and Officials
T12 T17. Required Abbreviations for Month Names
T13 T18. Required Abbreviations for Common Words Used In Periodical Names
T13.1 T15. Required Abbreviations for Institutions
T13.2 T18. Required Abbreviations for Common Words Used In Periodical Names
T14 T16. Required Abbreviations for Publishing Terms
T15 T4. Required Abbreviations for Services
T15 T4.1. Service Publisher Names
T15 T4.2. Service Abbreviations
T16 T13. Required Abbreviations for Document Subdivisions